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Case Study: "Always Be a Girl" movement

2020-07-08 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Case Study:  "Always Be a Girl" movement,文章讲述自1983年1月以来,Always一直在明尼苏达州进行测试,并在不久后进入美国市场。同时,Always在欧洲和中东一些国家/地区都有销售。如今,Always的女性护理产品在世界各地都很流行。2013年,Always在全世界范围内发起了一场运动。它使用了常用的侮辱“像一个女孩”,并试图通过制作一些广告将其含义更改为“彻头彻尾的惊人”。因为当人们说“你做的像女孩一样”时,这听起来像是一种侮辱。这场运动制作了一段录像,记录了人们如何表达“像一个女孩”这个短语,并希望改变它的含义。

 

Case Study:  "Always Be a Girl" movement

 

1. Executive summary

Since January, 1983,Always started to be tested in Minnesota and was brought in the United State market soon after. Meanwhile, Always was sold in Europe and some countries in the Middle East. Nowadays, the products of feminine care from Always are popular all around the world.

In 2013, Always began a campaign around the world. It used a commonly-used insult "like a girl" and tried to change the meaning to "downright amazing" through creating some advertisement. Because when people say ‘you do something like a girl’, it sounds like an insult. The campaign created a video that recorded how people express the phrase "like a girl" and want to change the meaning of it.

According to Judy John, the chief executive officer of Leo Burnett Canada, Always reaches out to girls who are likely to become the future of the brand. Girls usually rely on Always during their adolescence, a period that makes they feel unconfident and clumsy. Meanwhile, research of the campaign showed that many women expressed that their confidence declined in some ways at puberty. The purpose of the brand was clear, to give girls powerful support when they are experiencing a tough time.

The aim of this essay is to use some PR theories to analyze the implication of the campaign in terms of culture, society and the public, and it examines the strategies that the campaign used.

 

2. Analysis

First, I present an overview of the main theoretical concepts associated with cultural capital and gender theories in particular. The theories about capital from Bourdieu will be used in this paper. According to Bourdieu (1990), cited in Ihlen (2009), capital is a trained product according to labour need, and it is not natural (Ihlen 2009). Meanwhile, Bourdieu divided capital into three specific forms: economic capital, social capital and cultural capital. Cultural capital contains knowledge, skills and educational qualifications. It is important to the formation of people's taste and value. According to Gayo-Cal.et.al (2006), cultural capital is based on family background and education, and there is a link between cultural capital and symbolic power. Bourdieu (1997), cited in Edward (2008), showed that cultural capital is the basic foundation of other forms of capital. Cultural capital is formed, with the aid of familial influence, by connecting different factors in social world such as the loyalty of family, and good manners. These behaviors help them to improve their individual quality. The abilities of cultural capital are transferred through the process of socialization. It seems like that different individuals hold different cultural capital and they can use it to find their own social position (Edward, 2008). Therefore, cultural capital is not only important to individuals, but also vital to the society. Society consists of different individuals, if everyone has a high standard of cultural capital, the society will be better.  

On the other hand, the theories of gender are quite useful to analyzing the campaign. According to Bem (1981), differences between male and female exist in every society. Our society always gives the two sexes different tasks. Based on these tasks, people always define gender in the way that is imposed upon us by the society. Then the public will keep the mind and teach their children how to express their gender.

Based on Butler (1990, p179), gender is not totally natural because culture also shapes gender in some ways by expressing some connotations for a particular sex throughout the years. For example, men are strong, while women are weak; heterosexuality is normal, while homosexual is unmoral. People learned how to display gender from cultural customs (Butler, 1990). At the same time, gender schema is a quite unsure area in our society. It is hard to define women and men in public relations. However, our society began to think about the relationship between the two sexes, and thought about the power of public relationship in affecting the gender schema in society (Daymon, Christine, 2013)

 

2.1 Strategies of the campaign

Then, this paper will analyze the strategies and tactic which the campaign used. Meanwhile, the implications of the campaign will be shown and it will discuss the impact on culture, society and the public.

When girls reach puberty, they tend to exhibit a declination in confidence. Some harmful phrases will let girls to cast doubt on their own power at this sensitive time. Always found that the phrase 'like a girl' may have some negative impacts on girls' lives. Therefore, Always began this campaign to try to give a new meaning to the phrase 'like a girl' to help girls out of their sensitive period.

When assessing the campaign, it is important to examine the management strategies of Always. First, Always used leverage research data. Company used the insights and data in order to increase the news value and campaign credibility. Before the company produced the video, they did some researches. By performing those research, Always understood the elements and other insights of girl’s confidence at puberty. They found that girls experienced the biggest drop in confidence. The phrase 'like a girl' has become an insult. These results can help them to grasp the key ideas in the campaign. Then, the campaign introduced the hash tag. The company knew that if they want to change the meaning of the phrase, they must introduce the social hash tag #likeagirl as a slogan, to let the world know girls can do something amazing just 'like a girl'. Launching the video was important in our life. Mass media always attracts people in the first time. Always used the media's ability to expand the campaign's popularity. The Always 'like a girl' video was published on Always' YouTube site on June 26th. Before publishing of the video, some famous bloggers shared it on their social websites to help it spread. After publishing, the company used online and broadcast media to pay close attention to the gender trouble problem and feminism. The strategic media outreach ensured that the campaign receives high attention in the society. Celebrities were also invited to take part in the campaign. Celebrities including Tyler Oakley, Sarah Silverman and Kristen Bell shared the video and message in their blog or social website. The incorporation of celebrities undoubtedly attracted more attention for Always from the mass public. Meanwhile, Facebook and Twitter, the two most famous social platforms around the world, were used as a live news desk. They monitored and took part in the real time and maximized social sharing. At last, 'like a girl' was not a campaign in limited place, but a global campaign. Apart from success in North America, the campaign as also spread to 20 other markets across the whole world.

 

2.2 Cultural Capital Theory

When we analyse the campaign, it is important to understand the meaning of cultural capital. According to Bourdieu, cited in Ihlen.et.al (2009), cultural capital is a kind of accumulated labour. It can affect people's value and taste. It might shape a person to some extent. Bourdieu showed that specific resources or cultural capital were linked to taste cultures and it is able to divide people into different groups. On the other hand, it may affect people's estimate to the society and events (Leiss and Botterill, 2005)

That is why Always Company created the campaign. From this campaign, many people realized that our society has some misunderstanding of the meaning of 'girl' and forced girls to act like a girl in some wrong way. In the video of the campaign, when the producer asked grownups to run 'like a girl' or to fight 'like a girl', people always showed signs of weakness and shyness. It looks like the society considers girls' with only powerless images. However, when the producer asked the little girls to run 'like a girl', they just run like themselves, trying their best. In my view, it confirms Bourdieu's viewpoint that cultural capital could affect the action and concept of people. Little girls have not contacted with the society too much, a fact that allowed them to keep their own opinion about things in some ways.

The campaign is very meaningful. It tried to change the concept of cultural capital of people they had previously known before. Once the video of the campaign is produced, it began to spread the message and encourage females to rethink about their location in the society. Females are encouraged to exhibit critical thinking and cast doubt the message they receive from their culture instead of simply accepting everything that they were told.

Meanwhile, it makes people realize that using the phrase 'like a girl' to describe someone who did something bad is an insult. The campaign changed the public's awareness and transformed the way how people think about the phrase. It is another way to change the culture that people achieved. According to Ihlen (2009, p72), Bourdieu's work showed that the values and relations of social space are passed on from this generation to the next. Cultural capital always has this function. As a consequence, the campaign might change the things which were passed on to the next generations. It helps girls, women and the public realised how powerful females are. Maybe after the campaign, when using the phrase 'like a girl', it means you did something superb. On the other hand, by watching the video, girls began to think about which things are truly right for them to do. It means females have more freedom to do the things they really wanted to do. No one will blame them because the actions that they are performing does not confirm to the definitions of a girl or does not make them look like a girl. Hopefully this idea will be passed on to the next generation to form a positive and useful cultural capital.

The campaign is also quite meaningful for society. It started as a small social event and gained a remarkable achievement when it was spread all over the world. It makes #LikeAGirl video become one of the most popular videos in 2013. Meanwhile, based on the brand research, about 81% women support the campaign and was touched by the inspiring video. Additionally, the video achieved 76MM total global video views on YouTube from 150 countries, and more than one million people shared the video. The program achieved 4.5 billion impressions around the globe, including 1.7b in the U.S., 1.6b in the UK, 418m in France, 302m in China, 148m in Germany, 63m in Brazil, 41m in Mexico and 32m in Turkey. The program garnered more than 290 million social impressions and 133 thousand social mentions with #LikeAGirl.

Bourdieu's theory discovered the format in which the society is linked to the individual. While people is one of the main elements that created the society, the society in turn influences and changes people (Ihlen).

This theory signified that the event made a meaningful effect to our society. The more people take part in the campaign means that the more behaviour in the society will be changed. The people who watched the video or shared it with the others will gain a new concept. Individuals are linked to the society and no one can live along, separated from the society. If we make change the general mind set of individuals in the society, our society might be changed by us. Before the video, it seems as if the society is imposing too many limitations for females. Since the campaign, the situation might be able to change and it is believed that our society will transform in a positive way in the near future.

 

2.3 the Gender Theory

On the other hand, the society thinks highly of gender trouble in the recent years. Although the position of females is improved, gender trouble still exists. Daymon and Christ (1952) showed that gender inequalities do exist in our society. Feminist movement were always met with resistance, and the inherent gender relations were challenged by various feminist activities. Meanwhile, the society is changing every moment, which means that based on social activities, our society will produce a new environment and relationships of gender (Daymon and Christ, 1952). Therefore, the campaign from Always Company showed the common trouble in our society. According to the video, we can find that some people misunderstood the phrase 'like a girl' in a derogatory way. What is more, lots of public work showed that gender bias is common in our society. These researches almost focused on some issues such as wage variance and the under-representation of women in high positions (Daymon and Christ, 1952). The situation affects the relationship between women and the society. It might imply that females are weaker than males.

However, the campaign made people rethink about females and it created some advantageous effect on individuals. It provided a support for girls who needed confidence during their puberty. Always company tried to build a new understanding of the phrase 'like a girl' and rebuild the confidence of females. When girls first contact the brand at their puberty, their confidence is often at the lowest. If someone insults them by using the phrase 'like a girl', it will create some disadvantages in their life. Therefore, Always company tries to give girls power in the sensitive time.

Actually, the doubt about 'man' pointed that we can use 'man' to instead of 'man and 'human'. In addition to words, lots of pictures, magazines, books and museums use the images of men to symbolize humans. Based on the situation, females' rights and roles were covered. It results in another consequence: males became the leader of social development. In the history of females' development around the world, the difference of sex is an obstacle to limit female's progress. On the one hand, gender gap shows the natural difference between the two sexes. On the other hand, the gender gap focuses more on the behavior that the two sexes express. The connotation that females are weaker affects the occupation and education of females. The factor results in the low hierarchy of females in society. Our culture has constantly told us that females are not suitable to take part in competitions. Occupation belongs to males and as long as woman marry the right man, their lives are satisfactory and guaranteed. Therefore when some jobs are believed that they are more suitable to men, women might give up their confidence and choice. The experience from the outside shaped the thoughts of people. If modesty and shyness are the necessary characteristics of females, women will suppress themselves in lots of social places according to the social expectations of females. Hence, self-awareness is not only important for the individual, but also vital for social place of women. Women, even some of the most well-education ones, were always limited by traditional labels in the past. The real opposite aspect of women is not male, but the traditional social expectation of the role of women deeply rooted in their minds. Females got used to see themselves based on the male-biased conceptual scheme. Hence, their personal right is also limited. It is limited to make their dreams and wishes come true. It does not mean after the campaign, every girl can regain confidence and do everything they want to do without any limits. The campaign just opens a gap, providing females opportunities to be themselves. They will not be shameful because they are females. On the contrary, they should be proud of that. In young girls' minds, girl should be strong, powerful and successful. They tried their best to do things that the producer of the video asked them to do. Just like a girl said in the video, we can run like a girl, fight like a girl, even wake up like a girl. That is not something that we should be ashamed of because we are girls. If we do things like a girl and still be the first, then no one would say 'like a girl' is a bad thing.

According to Bulter and Judith P (2006), gender is not totally natural. It is formed by culture in some ways. Through a stylized repetition of acts, gender is an identity tenuously constituted in time. For example, man is strong, while women is weak. People learned how to show their gender through these expressions. According to expressions, it makes the next generation act according to the social expectations of their gender. It shows that culture makes people to be a girl or a boy (Bulter and Judith P 2006). Therefore, a lot of behaviours have always been affected by culture. If our culture told us girls should be shy and weak, females would be shaped like these. Just like women in the video, sometimes they showed a lack of confidence and shyness. When they were asked to do something like a girl, they expressed that girls should be a weak person. It is the gender expression they learned from culture. According to Barrry.et.al (1957), cited in Bem (1981), it also shows that gender is not a nature. The authors illustrated that the difference between women and men exists in every human culture. It seems as if the two sexes in our society have different tasks, and our society distributes the roles of sex to adults. Then their children inherited the stereotype from their parents. Boys and girls need to gain the sex-specific skills, meanwhile, they are expected to act as female and male according to what a particular sex is supposed to be behaving. It expressed that the process responded the importance and necessity of the gender expressions. Children learned from their society and got the expected repertoire (Bem 1981). Maccoby and Jackin (1974), cited in Bem (1981), also mentioned that it is the reason that children displayed their gender when they socialise themselves.

  If we ignore the trouble and the campaign is not created by Always Company, people might not realize the problem. The misunderstanding of females' mission may exist. Our society always praise more the deeds of men than women in media texts. Female always be formed as a passive and dependent actor. The situation existed until the campaign happened. The video broke this rigid rule. It showed us that the two sexes are equal. Females should not be recognized as feebler than males. It revealed females can do everything in their ways as good as males, and even better than males.


2.4 Implications on Education

I believe that the campaign also has some advantages to cultural capital of parents. The children will be right. There is no doubt that our children learned gender information and expected gender behaviors from their parents because they were not born with any bias. Because adult has the misunderstanding of the problem, their behavior and language will be influenced by the wrong gender schema. Children might get the wrong information from the behavior of their parents about gender schema. They learned the contents linked with their sex and behaviors. Adult played a really important role in children's world while some adults might not have even realized this fact. The children learned to define their sex and evaluate his or her expression in the gender schema (Bem, 1981). Kagan (1964), cited in Bem (1964), argued that when gender schema becomes a behavioral problem, it will affect the culture's definition of maleness and femaleness. In China, the education of gender in many families is based on their own mind or the experience from life. The old generation always uses the traditional thinking to educate their girls and boys. Therefore, it is not surprising that almost people have the wrong definition of females and males. If children cannot form a right gender schema, their whole life might be negatively influenced. Bem (1964) argued that the gender schema is a structure of cognizance. It guides the perception of an individual when the 'like a girl' video is watched. It created a chance for everyone to rethink their gender schema. It is also beneficial for individuals. When a family has a correct gender schema, the children from that family will have the right way to express the gender. If she is a girl, with confidence, power and determination, she might perform outstandingly in her field. She will be proud because she is a girl. Then it will change the bias to girls from other people in society. If he is a boy, he will show his respect to every female. He will learn to appreciate every women, believing that they should have the equal social positions as men. The gentlemanly behavior will win respect for him. Meanwhile, other people might rethink their language and behavior to females due to his influence.

Finally, the campaign was definitely a successes. Always brand's core is confidence. Always company wishes that every female can keep their confidence all of the time, especially during puberty. Girls learn how to express their gender and try to define the two sexes by themselves. Puberty makes them recognize the difference of the two sexes. If society always believes that men are stronger and more powerful than women, it is just like saying that females are not good enough. The concept formed girls' self-knowledge inevitably and affected their behaviors. Always Company tried to change that. The misunderstanding of the phrase 'like a girl' might have destructive effects. Therefore, the campaign created by Always Company might challenge the situation. People all over the world joined the brand to help redefine 'like a girl' as a positive expression. People used the hashtag #LikeAGirl on social media and the real world when they do something amazing. Many celebrities also participated to help spread the word. Before the campaign, the phrase is always used as an insult. The situation had improved since the campaign happened (Marketingmagazine.co.uk 2015). The PR practitioner did a successful PR campaign. It is based on a social problem which people really cared about. It not only expanded the effect and awareness of the brand, but also increased awareness of the situation. It made a chance to change women's position. Meanwhile, the campaign itself is related to the core value of the brand.


3. Conclusion

In conclusion, based on the campaign 'like a girl' of Always company, I have summarized the activity and analyzed the strategies they used. 'Like a girl' and campaign created a video to change the meaning of the phrase 'like a girl', tried to improve the confidence of female, especially girls who are at puberty. The creative insight of the campaign was based on our culture. Because the gender stereotypes are so enrooted in our culture, sometimes it is also included the language. In fact, most of the time, the expression 'like a girl' is used as an insult to describe people who are disabled and weak. It made a disadvantageous effect on females. Actually, the truth might be opposite. From the video, we saw that young girls always show the strength and power they have. They have not been influenced by the definition of 'girl'. 'Like a girl' just mean doing something as best as they could. The main platform of the campaign is YouTube and social platform. They created the hashtag #LikeAGirl to appeal people to take part in the activity. Facts proved that it is valid. The company used the power of social media to affect culture.


Then, I used some PR theories to examine the campaign. Bourdieu's theory about cultural capital is related to this campaign. According to Bourdieu, we know that cultural capital is quite important in forming people's taste and value. It is a link between individual and familial background and education, the reason why Always Company created the campaign was that it tried to change some wrong ideas in people's cultural capital. The change not only could transform people's behavior and language to females, but also could alter the traditional thinking of women in society.


Another theory I used in this paper is the gender theory. The gender problem always exists in our society. The position of the two sexes is not equal actually. From the video, it is believed that our society had a traditional definition of female. Some people misunderstood the phrase 'like a girl' in a derogatory way. The situation affects the relationship between women and society. It might imply that females are weaker than males. Actually, it is demonstrated that gender is not totally natural. It is formed by culture in some ways, gender is an identity tenuously constituted in time through a stylized repetition of acts. People always say man is strong, women is weak. Individual learned how to show their gender through these expressions. However, this is not the only negative consequence, it makes the next generation learn the wrong gender expression. It is showed that culture makes people to be a girl or a boy. Therefore, culture has always affected a lot of our behaviours. If our culture told us girls should be shy and weak, females would be shaped like these. The campaign of Always Company broke the tradition in some ways. It made people, especially females, began to rethink about their perspective of the gender expression.

Based on the previous analysis of the campaign, it is illustrated that 'like a girl' campaign is a successful and useful PR activity. Since the video, 'like a girl' is not an insult anymore, and girls received more support and confidence when they experience the most important time in their life, and the public has a new view to the phrase and females. Except the popular social problem, the brand itself also gained much more attention. Always company became one of the most famous companies of feminine care.


 

 

 

 


References

Bem, S. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88(4), pp.354-364.

 

Daymon, C. and Demetrious, K. (n.d.). Gender and public relations.

 

Gender trouble: feminism and the subversion of identityButler, Judith P. Routledge classics, 2006

 

Ihlen, Ø., Fredriksson, M. and Ruler, B. (2009). Public relations and social theory. New York: Routledge.

 

Leiss, W. and Botterill, J. (2005). Social communication in advertising. New York: Routledge.

 

Marketingmagazine.co.uk, (2015). Always #LikeAGirl. [online] Available at: http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/1366870/always-likeagirl [Accessed 19 Dec. 2015].

 

PR practitioners’ cultural capital: An initial study and implications for research and practice,Lee Edwards∗ Leeds Business School, Leighton Hall 215, Headingley Campus, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds LS6 3QS, United Kingdom

 

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