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Analyze the criticism of "two faces of education in ethnic conflict"

2020-06-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Analyze the criticism of "two faces of education in ethnic conflict",文章讲述本文有一个清晰的结构来陈述基于种族原则的两个教育面。它从在各州之间的当代教育中引入族裔开始,到最后得出重要结论。从19世纪和20世纪初开始,文化冲突就开始作为一种重要的理论趋势进行了回顾。在大约200年的研究历史中,各种理论家都提出了有关社会文化的观点。例如,最近已经认识到有必要将种族分层与更传统的调查范围如性别和社会经济分层结合起来(Parkin,1979)。关于种族灭绝和种族灭绝的历史,社会学和心理学研究之间还有进一步的联系(Staub,1989)。在该主题下,作者认为儿童的种族社会化,种族暴力的最新统计数据,暴力种族冲突的内部动态,少数群体问题以及国家之间的教育建设是重点。

 

Analyze the criticism of "two faces of education in ethnic conflict"

 

 

1 A General Review of the Article

This article has a clear construct to state two faces of education based on ethnic principles. It starts from introduce ethnicity in contemporary education among states, while ends with a significant conclusion.

Culture conflicts started to be reviewed as an important theoretical tend from 19th and early 20th century. During around 200 years research history, various theorists stated their point regarding to social culture. For example, there has been a recent recognition of the need to incorporate ethnic stratification alongside the more traditional dimensions of investigation such as gender and socio-economic stratification (Parkin, 1979). There is a further point of con- tact between historical, sociological and psychological research on genocide and ethnocide (Staub, 1989). Under this topic, children’s ethnic socialization, current statistics of ethnic violence, internal dynamics of violent ethnic conflict, minority issues, and education building among nations are viewed as key points by the author.

What impressed me most were two of the points. First, it was useful to gather information from the part of children’s ethnic socialization. Children’s negative attitudes are influenced by early experience, especially parent and child relationships (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000), which means education could be effectively delivered to children only when it also targets on parents. This article aims towards a peace-building education for children. Thus, it is essential to review a current ethnic situation of children within different social contexts. The other point impressed as a massive data statistical of ethnic violence, while the author provided a lot of numbers regarding to countries and minorities under ethnic violence. For example, Darby (1997) estimated that there were 74 active violent political conflicts, 19 of which had resulted in more than 1,000 deaths in that single year.

2 Main Points and Conclusions

The main points in this article consist of two parts. The first one is two face of education, while the other is to construct a peace-building education.

In the part of two faces education, the author pointed out negative face as well as positive face. Seven statements outlined in negative face are mainly emphasizing on political and culture opinions. For example, the author focused on the inequity of education all over the world, such as an uneven distribution of education. Based on the evidence, privileged ethnic groups usually attain higher average educational levels than members of subordinate ethnic groups (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000). Also, the author pointed out that the education, sometimes, is a weapon of culture repression (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000). Take Africa as an example, newly independent governments in Africa often attributed great strategic importance to education as a means of maintaining political command and control (Stavenhagen, 1996). Meanwhile, for the political opinions, the author pointed out governments’ activities, which manipulates history and history for political purposes, and segregated education to ensure inequity, lowed esteem, and stereotyping (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000).

However, positive part of education face embrace with multi-culture competence. Positive competence within education includes de-segregation, ethnical tolerant, language diversity, culture inclusive, and current education tends response to culture oppression. Take linguistic tolerance for example, there are 15 different linguistic groups and where Islamic and Christian populations have long co-existed peacefully, no civil wars have occurred since independence from France in the 1960s (Stavenhagen, 1996). It has also acknowledged the need for minority groups to learn the majority language to ensure access to secondary and higher education on an equal footing (China IRCO, Add.56, paras. 19 and 40).

No matter how much negative or positive ingredients are in current education issues, the article is towards a peace-building education, started from an introduction of what peace-building education is. Because of the negative impacts of education, it effects more on current education and will lead us to seek a positive impact on education which will be called peace-building education. In terms of the social context, the specific impact of conflict on formal and informal education depends on the nature and dynamics of violence (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000). Social order and control is achieved by instilling and manipulating fear at profound human, political, and social cost while the mechanics of this process are well recognized and pervasive (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000). It means how to control culture of fears and how to practice coping mechanisms are essential while applying peace-building education virtually.

One of important tips that educates should be cautious is to distinguish peace-building education and to build peace education. Peace-building education, unlike peace education, emphasized more on multi-culture, militarization of violence, and practice. For peace education, it is applied mainly by white, elites who are the top status in society. However, peace-building education is a bottom driven tends, which focused culture and ethnic violence, and should be considered to apply both in classroom and in the real world. Meanwhile, t would be applied, immediate and relevant. This means that it cannot be restricted to the classroom. It might include community projects involving children and adolescents from across ethnic borderlines or inter-ethnic economic development projects (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000). In a word, peace-building education is a long-term process, which relies on local inputs and resources that seeks to create opportunities for diversity and inclusive (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000).

Generally, the goal of peace-building education is demilitarization of the mind, problematization, articulation of alternatives, changing the rules of the game, delegitimation of violent force as a means of addressing problems, re-membering and re-weaving the social and anthropological fabric, nurturing non-violent, sustainable modalities of change (Bush & Saltarelli, 2000).

3 Critical Analysis of the Article

Once I started thinking about education as a major, I started thinking it might be even more useful than I initially realized until I had always found myself being drawn to people. Not so much the people themselves, but their behavior, sociocultural context, and needs of development. The fascination with people is a key ingredient for me to help people from diverse sociocultural context while integrating the research, practice, and theory I learned.

Based on this article, as an educate student, it is my responsibility and honor help all diverse students to decrease negative face of education while embrace more positive part of it. In order to construct a peace-building education, I believe the best effective practice is based on the theory and research, while the significant scientific evidence comes from the practical exploration. In order to avoid bias, should help and affect people and students as much as possible no matter about their age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, religion, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status.

However, what two faces toward education is only an assumption. In order to make it come true, it is not enough by a group of people, but all educates and students together. As students, one should have motivation to seek for new type of education instead of staying at old version. As the educate, we should advocate for student, for this profession, and also, for social justice!

References

Bush, K. D., ‘Towards a Balanced Approach to Rebuilding War-Tom Societies’, Canadian Foreign Policy, Vol. III, No. 3, 1996.

Bush, K. D., ‘Cracking Open the Ethnic Billiard Ball: Bringing in the Intra-Group Dimensions of Eth- nic Conflict Studies’, Occasional Paper (9:OP: 1), Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Stud- ies, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 1996.

Bush, K. D., A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment of Development Projects in Conflict Zones. Ottawa, International Development Research Centre, 1998.

Bush, K. D. & Saltarelli, D. (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. United Nations Children’s Fund Innocenti Research Centre. Florence, Italy.

Cantwell, N., ‘Starting from Zero: The Promotion and Protection of Children’s Rights in Post-Geno- cide Rwanda, July 1994 - December 1996’, Innocenti Insights. UNICEF International Child Develop- ment Centre, Florence, 1997.

Carment, D. and P. JAMES, Escalation of Ethnic Conflict: A Survey and Assessment. Carleton University and Iowa State University, 1996.

Darby, J., Scorpions in a bottle: conflicting cultures in Northern Ireland. Minority Rights Group, London, 1997.

Gintis, H., ‘Education, Technology, and the Characteristics of Worker Productivity’. American Economic Review, 61, 1971.

Glazer, N. and D. P. MOYNIHAN, Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1975.

Graham, S., Education in the Developing World: Conflict and Crisis. World University Service, Lon- don, 1991.

Haveman, R.H. and B. WOLFE, ‘Schooling and Economic Well-Being: the Role of Nonmarket Effects’, Journal of Human Resources 19 (Summer), 1984.

Heyneman, S. P., ‘Education in the Europe and Central Asia Region: Policies of Adjustment and Excel- lence’, in F.J.H. Mertons (ed.) Reflections on Education in Russia. Amersfort, Acco, 1995a.

Heyneman, S. P., Thoughts on Social Stabilization. CIVITAS, Prague 1995b.

Parkin, F., ‘Social Stratification’, in Bottomore, T. and R. Nisbet (eds), A History of Sociological Analysis. Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1979.

Staub, E., The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989.

Rex, J., Race and Ethnicity. Open University Press, Welwyn Garden City, 1986.

Richards, E., ‘The Debate about Peace Education’, Background Paper # 10. Canadian Institute for Inter- national Peace and Security, December 1986.

Riegel, F. and JOHN A. MEACHAM (eds), The Developing Individual in a Changing World. The Hague, Mouton, 1976.

Stavenhagen, R., Ethnic Conflicts and the Nation-State. Macmillan Press Ltd., 1996.

 

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