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Inquiry research method

2020-06-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Inquiry research method,文章讲述并非所有问题都可用于研究。一个好的研究问题应该满足某些需求。首先,好的研究问题应该具有应用这些概念的潜力。这样,研究结果就可以得到实际说明。第二,问题不应太狭窄或太广泛。如果问题过于笼统,答案可能与研究主题不符。如果问题太狭窄,将限制参与者的思想。因此,研究主题在研究设计中非常重要。一个应该将学习主题缩小到某个主题。研究的主题应该贴近人们的生活,并且研究的问题应该有趣。例如,问题“什么是最有效的英语学习方法?”比“听力是英语学习中最重要的事情吗?”这个问题更好(苏,2008年)。”这个问题应该易于理解,以激发人们的兴趣。第三,背景是设计研究问题时最重要的因素之一。一个很好的问题应该与主题上下文有关。因此,首先要选择适当的主题上下文。然后相应地设计问题。该问题应与研究内容一致。最后,这个问题不应太困难和复杂。例如,在调查表中,如果问题太抽象或太难,则会影响研究结果。如果问题有点困难,研究人员应提供有关该问题的相关理论或信息。

 

Inquiry research method

The factors that characterize a good research question. 

Not all of the questions can be used in the research. A good research question should meet certain demands. Firstly, the good research questions should have the potential for the application of the concepts. In this way, the results of the research can be illustrated practically. Secondly, the question should not be too narrow or too broad. If the question is too broad, the answer may not close to the topic of the research. And if the question is too narrow, it will limit the participator’s thought. So the topic of the study is very important in the research design. One should narrow down the study topic to the certain one. The topic of the research should be close to people’s life and the research question should be interesting. For example, the question “what are the most effective ways of learning English?” is better than the question “Does listening is the most important thing in the English learning? (Sue, 2008).” The question should be easy to understand, in order to stimulate people’s interest. Third, the context is one of the most important factors in the designing the research questions. A good question should have the connection with the topic context. So choosing a proper topic context at first. Then designing the questions accordingly. The question should in accord with the content of the research. Last, the question should not be too difficult and complex. For example, in the questionnaire, if the question is too abstract or difficult, it will influence the results of the research. If the question is a little difficult, the researcher should provide the relevant theory or information about the question.

The two main concepts of knowledge that influence decisions made as part of the research process

There are two main concepts of knowledge that influence the decisions made in the research process. One is quantitative research, another is qualitative research.

A quantitative way to research is often connected with a deductive approach, which can be used to test the theory. The quantitative research refers to that the researcher gives the research hypothesis in advance, and provides the strict research design. Then the researcher collects the data and analyzes the data in quantity. The most important thing is that the research illustrates the funding of the results by using the data, the number, and the tables. It emphasizes that the form of the research process (Sue, 2008). The SPSS is widely used in the quantitative research. For this reason, the results of the quantitative research is easier than the qualitative research.   

As for the qualitative research, it is different from the quantitative research. The inductive approach is often used in the qualitative research which can generate the common theory at last. The qualitative research is usually based on the natural context (Sue, 2008). The methods of the qualitative research are common, such as interview, the observation, the case study and so on. It is not so strict as the quantitative research. For example, in the interview model, it advocates the various perspectives and multiple relative knowledge instead of finding the unique criterion (Bowen, 2009).

Meanwhile, the period of the qualitative research usually is longer than the quantitative research. It requires the deep exploration and the analysis in detail. Based on the deeper exploration, the hypothesis and theories are established. It emphases the testing of the results. The researcher is often the participator of the whole research.   

In the current research, we can mix these two kind of research. At the same time, we should take the situation of the research in to the consideration and choose the most appropriate one.  

The sampling in research

Sampling refers to a practical and special way of studying people themselves and their thinking, attitude, comment etc. It is very important in research. On the one hand, the research should serve for the human, human is the most important thing for the research. By doing the research, people can analyze the data and adjust the strategies to make the life better. The objective of the sampling is human. So it is meaningful to use the sampling in research. On the other hand, in order to collect the believable data, the research should take all the people in to the consideration. However, there are so many people in the world. The researcher cannot ask for all the people’s thoughts. So we usually choose a group of people to get the results. To some extent, these people can stand for the whole people (Webb, 2001). The sampling is effective and convenient in the research process.

There are various categories of sampling. For example, the simple random sampling. It is an important category of sampling. It means the research chooses the certain people from the whole people randomly. It is easy to be carried on. But it is appropriate only when the quantity of the sample is not so large. Another important category of sampling is systematic random sampling. It is useful when the sample is large (Sue, 2008).

As for the sampling techniques. There are all kinds of sampling techniques in research. Each sampling technique has the strengths and weaknesses. I will introduce three sampling techniques.

The first is probability sample. It means the sample is chosen in randomly. The characteristic is that each unit has a known chance of selection. The strength of probability ample is that this sampling can reduce the sampling error and provide representative. The weakness is that it is not effective when the sample has the periodic trends (Sandelowski, 1995).

The second is multi-stage cluster sampling. It refers to that the sampling frame is broken into clusters with a random sample. Next, the population of every cluster is sampling randomly in order to offer random sampling. The strength is that it can be very effective by using both the cluster and systematic sampling. The weakness is that the procedure of the sampling is too complicate (Sandelowski, 1995).

The third is stratified sampling. It divides the whole sample into several sub-sample by certain characteristics. Then choosing the samples from each sub-sample according to the proportion of each one in the sample. The strength is that it is appropriate when the structure of the sample is too complicate. When the layout of the sample is well-organized, it can reduce the sampling error. At the same time, it allows the researcher to control the research more. The weakness is that the researcher should make clear the characteristics of the each sub-sample. If the researcher cannot do this, it is difficult to do the data analysis well (Sue, 2008).

The importance of validity and reliability when designing research

When designing research, the validity and reliability are very important. The validity refers to the veracity of testing the results. Generally speaking, there are three ways to ensure the validity in the research process, they are the face validity, the construct validity, the internal validity. The reliability means the stability and the consistency of the results of the research (Sue, 2008). Reliability has a close connection with the validity. If a research has the strong reliability and validity, it will illustrate that the results of the research are believable and practical (Collier, 1986).

In the research, we can often see that a research privileges one over the other. Why? It may account for the high reliability and validity. For example, there is a research about the student’s achievement in the school. The good research must have the proper reliability and validity. On the one hand, the research should make many questions in to the consideration, such as “Does the research access all the skills of the knowledge?”, “Does the result of the research has the high accuracy and reality?”, “Can the result of the research predict students’ demonstration in the relative context?” and so on. On the other hand, the research should have the high validity. The followings questions should also be taken into the consideration. “Do students get the same score in the different time and places?”, “can different teacher give the same score to a certain student?”. When the results of the research do not be influenced by the place, time, the teachers, the exam etc, we can say that the research has the higher validity.

The ethical considerations in research

In business research, the ethical considerations in research are very important. Ethics refers to the moral selections which can affect the decision. I will list three main ethical consideration in research. The first is participant acceptance. For example, when you tend to ask people some questions which may involve some personal information, you should try to make them to trust you to make the results of the research believable (Sue, 2008). The second is time. For instance, some people do not response the questions in time. This is not good for the researcher to achieve the project. At that time, the researchers should lead the people to response strategically. The third is the researcher’s identity as the real researcher (Sue, 2008). For example, as a good researcher, one should know about the content of the whole study, including some details, such as how to collect the results effectively? Can the data be applied in the similar research? How to make good use of the results? and so on.

The case study

The case study is one of the most important research method. Case study is focus on a specific issue. It may give the detail information at last. In the process of the case study, it emphases the specific data analysis (Sue, 2008). To some extent, the researcher can use the case study for various issues and disciplines. Many scientist view the case study as the empirical inquiry. Various sources can be used in the case study (Baskerville, 1996). As a good case study, it should include many procedures (determine the research questions, select the proper case and the data gathering and the relative analysis techniques, take the preparation of collecting the data, collect the data effectively, analyze the data and evaluate them, make the report) (Soy, 1997). By using the case study, the ability about how to solve the practical questions.

 

References

Baskerville, R. L., & Wood-Harper, A. T. (1996). A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. Journal of information Technology, 11(3), 235-246.

Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative research journal, 9(2), 27-40.

Collier, J., & Collier, M. (1986). Visual anthropology: Photography as a research method. UNM Press.

Sandelowski, M. (1995). Sample size in qualitative research. Research in nursing & health, 18(2), 179-183.

Soy, S. K. (1997). The case study as a research method. Unpublished paper, University of Texas at Austin, 1-6.

Sue Greener, (2008), business research method, p1-110. Bookboo.com

Webb, C., & Kevern, J. (2001). Focus groups as a research method: a critique of some aspects of their use in nursing research. Journal of advanced nursing, 33(6), 798-805.

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