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The solution to insomnia

2020-06-19 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- The solution to insomnia,文章讲述睡眠不是一个新的健康话题。学者们从心理学,医学等方面对该领域进行了长期的研究。他们试图为公众发现睡眠的奥秘。

1913年初,亨利·皮伦(Henri Pieron)出版了第一本从心理学的角度研究睡眠的书,名为《生理问题》。他的研究被广泛认为是现代睡眠研究方法的开端。在1920年代后期,纳撒尼尔·克莱特曼(Nathaniel Kleitman)开始研究睡眠和昼夜节律的调节,包括研究不同人群的睡眠特征和睡眠剥夺的影响。 1953年,他和尤金·阿瑟林斯基(Eugene Aserinsky)取得了具有里程碑意义的发现,即睡眠期间快速眼动(REM)。 (斯坦福,1999年)William C. Dement博士于1955年提出了夜间睡眠的“周期性”性质。然后在1957年和1958年,他发现了REM睡眠与梦境之间的关系。同时,他发表了一篇关于猫的周期性睡眠组织的论文。他在人类以外的物种中发现睡眠周期的知识引起了基础研究的爆炸式增长,并吸引了药理学,生物化学等其他领域的研究人员,从而使Michel Jouvet将REM睡眠鉴定为一种独立的机敏状态,称为“悖论性睡眠”。 (斯坦福,1999年)自1965年以来,欧洲研究人员对“匹克威克”患者在睡眠中存在呼吸暂停的发现,引起了对“睡眠大脑”对人体重要功能进行控制的一系列研究。这类工作还导致了“睡眠医学”的新学科。 (睡眠障碍信息,2014年)

 

The solution to insomnia

With the society developing, people’s living standard is getting better. As a result, they begin paying more attention to the health topics. Among them, sleep is an intriguing topic. It is a problem bothering modern people for long. Especially today, with the pace of life accelerating, it is capturing more and more attention from all walks of life. Sleep does matter. The need for sound and sufficient sleep has worldwide importance.

I. The History of Sleep Problem Study

Sleep is not a new health topic. Scholars have been studying this area for long, in terms of psychology, medicine and so on. They tried to discover the mystery of sleep for the public.

Early in 1913, Henri Pieron published the first book to study sleep from the perspective of psychology, which is called Le probleme physiologique du sommeil. His studies are widely considered as the beginning of modern approach to sleep research. Later in the 1920s, Nathaniel Kleitman began to study the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms, including studies of sleep characteristics in different populations and effects of sleep deprivation. In 1953 he and Eugene Aserinsky, made the landmark discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) during sleep. (Stanford, 1999)

Dr. William C. Dement came up with the “cyclical” nature of nocturnal sleep in 1955. Then in 1957 and 1958 he discovered the relationship between REM sleep and dreaming. Meanwhile, he published a paper on the existence of a cyclic organization of sleep in cats. His finding of sleep cycles in species other than humans has created an explosion of fundamental research and attracted researchers from other fields such as pharmacology, biochemistry, leading to Michel Jouvet’s identification of REM sleep as an independent state of alertness called “paradoxical sleep.” (Stanford, 1999)

Since 1965, discoveries by European researchers on the presence of apnea during sleep among “Pickwickian” patients brought out a flurry of investigations of the control exercised by the “sleeping brain” on the body’s vital functions. This type of work also led to the new discipline of “sleep medicine.” (Sleep Disorder Info, 2014)

Today sleep study has developed into a branch of study which is related to areas like narcolepsy research, sleep and cardio-respiratory research, and studies of pain and sleep, circadian rhythms, shift work and its effects on sleep, sleep deprivation, and infant sleep. It is gaining more and more value of study.

II. The Impact of Sleep Problem on the Individual and Society

As for the sleep problem, there is an interesting description in the novel One Hundred Years of Solitude. “....The entire town of Macondo was stricken by a sleep problem---the insomnia. Interestingly, the insomnia was infectious. Therefore, both the old and the young were suffering from this disease. At first, insomnia brought energy to the town, because people worked more and sleep less. As a result, the town took on a new look of prosperity and its economy boosted. However, problems came sooner. Under the influence of insomnia, the inhabitants started to forget things and some even died from it. The town became lifeless again. Insomnia was not cured until Melquíades returned....” (García, 1978) Although the novel exaggerated the problem, yet from the descriptions, the influence of sleep problem on the individual and society can be seen. It could post great threats to daily life and the order of society.

To individuals, first of all, sleep problem is companied by other health problems. Sleep problem may put individuals at the risks of many diseases, like high blood pressure, heart attack, and hypertension. As Stuart (2009) pointed out, there is substantial evidence linking sleep problems with cardiovascular disease, etc.. Regarding the Obstructive Sleep Apnea, one of the sleep problems, this condition may be the fatally risky factor for the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other illness. Conditions like insomnia are strongly associated, but it is verified that they are primary risk factors determined only in longitudinal cohort studies. Whether or not they are primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, it is likely that disturbances caused by sleep problems occur more commonly in people with some types of cardiovascular disease. Sleep problems can be an important signal of other health problems, which can’t be overlooked.

Besides health problems, sleep problem can affect individual’s efficiency at work, resulting in more absences and lower productivity. According to Rahkonen and Lallukka (2012), 21% of women and 17% of men reported frequent sleep problems are linked to frequent sickness absence in their research. They concluded that sleep problem should be addressed to prevent sickness absence. Resulted from illness caused by sleep problem, their working ability would also be impaired. For example, the loss of sleep can affect individual’s interpretation of events, which hurts our ability to make sound judgments, because they may not assess situations accurately and act on them wisely. Because of the impaired ability, working efficiency lowered.

Sleep problem can affect individual’s performance, safety and quality of life. At the same time, it affects the society. It seems that Sleep problem has developed into a public epidemic, torturing the whole society. Social problems caused by it vary from economic loss to frequent car accidents. Harvey and Bruce in their book (2006) said, “The high estimated costs to society of leaving the most prevalent sleep disorders untreated are far more than the costs that would be incurred by delivering adequate treatment. Hundreds of billions of dollars a year are spent on direct medical costs associated with doctor visits, hospital services, prescriptions, and over-the-counter drugs.” Whether the society determines to fight sleep problem or not, it would cause great economic cost. Those suffered individuals need health care, which would lead to increased health care utilization. Furthermore, it will bring a long-term burden to the health care system. The sleep problem sufferers’ keeping visiting doctors and getting medical treatment would consequently place greater burden on the society and thus cause higher costs. The direct cost of sleep problem could be the money that patients spent on treatments and medical care, and the indirect cost would be the associated loss of productivity, industrial and motor vehicle accidents, hospitalization, and increased alcohol consumption. All these are products of the sleep problem.

Actually, the impact of sleep problem can be far more serious than it is mentioned above. Both the individual and society should pay attention to it.

III. Recommendations on Reducing the Impact of Sleep Problem

    Both individuals and the society are faced with challenges from sleep problem. Therefore, to reduce the impacts of sleep problem requires individual’s efforts as well as supports from all walks of life in the society.

    “Frequent insufficient sleep is strongly associated with poor quality of life, including smoking, physical inactivity and drinking ect..” (Herrick, 2010) Individuals should improve awareness of sleep problem and form good habits. First, take more exercise. Research has shown that people who are physically fit and active will have a better quality of sleep. However, avoiding strenuous exercise in the evening and certainly just before bedtime is important as well. Second, eat a balance diet. Eating habits are closely related to health. People eat a lot would easily suffer from sleep apnoea, while those who are often on diet would be waken up by hunger during night. Consequently, a balance diet matters when it comes to solving sleep problem. Third, pay attention to alcohol, tobacco and caffeine intake. All these are so-called stimulant affecting our sleeping quality. Individuals should reduce the intake of such substance. Finally, individuals should improve their awareness of sleep problem and sleep itself. Once encountered such problem, take appropriate measures to cope with it. To conclude, individuals can form good habits to reduce the impacts from sleep problem.

    The society should provide supports to reduce the impacts of sleep problem. More academic health centers studying sleep problem should be built to study sleep problem. On one hand, through studying sleep problem, there will be more solutions to reduce its damage to people and society. On the other hand, centers can provide the public with more professional advice to get rid of sleep problem and form good habits. Improvements in the health care system should be made as well. Government should put more money and human resources into this field, including founding hospitals or clinics specialized in curing diseases related to sleep problem and providing more professional training to the nurses. In the end, enough propaganda can arouse public awareness of this problem.

    Through the efforts of individuals and the society, the negative impact of sleep problem would be minimized. However, individuals are the key to solving sleep problem. Reflecting the modern life, people want to beat sleep problem? There is still a long way to go.

IV. How Sleep Problem Relates to My Current Profession

    Actually, as a student, sleep problem is not a health topic that far away from me. However, I didn’t take it so serious before. It was turned out to be wrong.

I got used to drinking a lot of coffee at night and sleep irregularly. Soon these bad habits made me feel uncomfortable. I often felt sleepy during the day while couldn’t fall asleep at night. I was inefficient when working or studying and got tired easily, so I had to rely more and more on coffee to keep me awake during the day. But it only worsened my situation. I tired to get rid of sleep disorder by changing the bad habits. Until now, though things get better, I am still under the influence of the sleep problem. I can tell that sleep problem is everywhere and hard to get rid of. If I want to live a high-quality life, I should do more to reduce impact from sleep problem.


Reference

Sleep Research Center, Stanford University. (1999). A Brief History of Sleep Research. Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://web.stanford.edu/~dement/history.html

Cite in text: (Stanford, 1999)

Sleep Disorder Info. (2014). Sleep Disorder Research: The History of Sleep Medicine. Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://www.sleepdisordersinfo.org/sleep-disorders-research-and-discovery/

Cite in text: (Sleep Disorder Info, 2014)

The Guardian. (2014). How to Improve Your Sleep. The Good Sleep Handbook.Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/201 1/jan/29/how-to-improve-your-sleep

García, M. G. (1978). One hundred years of solitude. London: Pan Books.

Stuart, F. Quan. (2009). Sleep Disturbances and Their Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3, 55-59.

Rahkonen, O., & Lallukka, T. (2012). Sleep problems and sickness absence among middle-aged employees. Scand J Work Environ Health, 38(1), 47-55.

Harvey, R.C., & Bruce, M.A. (Eds.). (2006). Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research.

Herrick, H. (2010). The Association of Insufficient Sleep with Smoking, Obesity, Physical Inactivity, and Poor Quality of Life: Results from the 2008 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey. State Center for Health Statics.

 

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