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The impact of illegal immigration on U.S. security

2020-06-19 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- The impact of illegal immigration on U.S. security,文章讲述非法移民是传统安全领域的重要组成部分,也是国际社会面临的共同问题。特别是在“ 9·11”事件之后,非法移民被视为对国家安全的威胁,这一概念在美国尤为普遍。在传统意义上,国家安全主要是从地缘政治和军事安全的角度出发,包括属于“高级政治”(本政策)范畴的国家主权,不可侵犯的领土和不倾覆的政治经济体系。 [1]但是,随着社会的发展和国际政治环境的变化,除了政治和军队之外,国家安全的范围变得更加广泛。它还包括经济学,社会,文化和其他方面。在“ 9·11”事件之后,国家安全战略目标的核心是维护美国国土安全并防范广泛的恐怖袭击。在该战略的指导下,美国政府采取了各种政策手段来确保国家安全,包括加强对非法移民的控制和管理。那么,非法移民会对美国国家安全构成威胁吗?它们之间是否存在一种必然的逻辑关系?本文将从社会保障,国土安全和文化安全三个方面进行分析和评价。

 

The impact of illegal immigration on U.S. security

 

Introduction

Illegal immigrants are an important part in the field of traditional security, and also a common problem facing the international community. Especially after the "9 · 11" incident, illegal immigrants are seen as a threat to national security, this concept is particularly prevalent in the United States. In the traditional sense, national security is mainly from the perspective of geopolitics and military security, including the national sovereignty, inviolable territory and non-overturn political and economic system that belong to the category of "senior politics" (this policy). [1] However, with the development of the society and the change of international political environment, the extension of national security becomes more broadly, except for politics and militaries. It also includes economics, social, cultural and other aspects. After "9 · 11" incident, the core of the national security strategy goal is to maintain American homeland security and guard against a wide range of terrorist attacks. Under the guidance of this strategy, the U.S. government has adopted a variety of the policy means to ensure national security, including strengthening the control and management of illegal immigrants. So, does illegal immigration pose a threat to the U.S. national security? Whether there is a kind of inevitable logic relationship between them? This essay will do analyses and evaluations from the three aspects, social security, homeland security and cultural security.

 

Firstly, illegal immigration and social security in the United States

The so-called social security mainly refers to the relationship between the illegal immigration and the crime rate of American society. Whether there is a certain correlation between illegal immigrants and the United States social security? We will first elaborate this problem. The correlation with illegal immigrants and U.S. social security is not just illegal immigrants themselves who can participate in a series of illegal and criminal activities, but also other criminal activities in object to illegal immigrants. Specifically, the correlation is mainly manifested in the following two aspects. First of all, illegal immigrants who pay for cost of crossing boundary engage in drug trafficking and organized crime. As is known to all, an important content in “The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986” is of strengthening border enforcement.[2] since then, the government of the United States increased money, personnel and equipment for border enforcement, but also carried out the special action for many times. In order to improve the success rate of illegal border crossing, the illegal immigrants have turned to people smugglers (in the US-Mexico border, these people smugglers are often referred to as "coyotes"). On the one hand, the human trafficking group makes money by helping illegal immigrants across the border; on the one hand, they will do drug trafficking and other organized crime activities. Obviously, they have got double identities, namely "coyotes" and "organized crime group ". As a result of higher "coyotes" commission, many illegal border crossers are unable to pay in cash. In this case, the illegal border crossers will tend to help people smugglers carry a small amount of the drug to pay for commissions.[3] An apparent growing number of illegal immigrants are often intertwined with the international smuggling activities. They are usually associated with organized crimes, among which drug smuggling is the most serious case. In addition, the illegal immigrants are involved in other crime activities such as the gang violence, forge or identity theft.

Secondly, illegal immigrants themselves are victims of crime, which also become an important aspect of the relationship between illegal immigration and the U.S. crime rate. Assault against illegal immigrants is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is the abuse of illegal workers and creates new "slavery". Two is the forced illegal immigrants engaged in the porn industry. Since illegal immigrants are often the first-selected objects of criminal violation, crime activities involved with illegal immigrants emerge one after another. This causes a kind of illusion to the American public that illegal immigrants and criminal activities are necessarily associated.

To a large extent, the interrelation between the illegal immigration and crime rate is the result of people’s false cognition. In the eyes of many Americans, the behavior of the illegal immigrants first has violated the laws of the United States. They are the lawbreakers in nature. As a result, many Americans will naturally link the illegal immigrants with crime. However, many researchers have found that there is no connection between illegal immigration and crime rates. At the same time, the crime rate of illegal immigration is not higher than native American born. The Immigration Policy Center made a study of immigrants and native born on the crime rate. The outcome indicates that the crime rate of foreign born (legal immigrants and illegal immigrants) crime rate is lower than the native born.

In addition, when examining the influence of illegal immigrants to the social security of the United States, there are some technical issues of data collection and measurement that are difficult to accurately grasp. James Smith (James P. Smith) and Barry, Edmund (Barry Edmonston) wrote in a book “New American: Economic, Demographic and Fiscal effects of immigration: "measuring the impact of the immigration crime is in the maze of statistics. The main limitation of existing statistics of crime is of not knowing their immigration status. We often don't know who committed the crime, especially from the victim's report that we don't know if he is an immigrant or native. Victims cannot be judged as illegal or legal immigrants, or naturalized or native-born citizens. Apparently, "the crime statistics of illegal immigration are particularly difficult"[4] Kristin F. Butcher also encountered the same dilemma in the process of research." Like the most of researches, we do not have an ideal data. Data lack has restricted when we can answer the question, especially that we can't specifically focus on undocumented population."As a result, “it is difficult to draw a strong conclusion of interrelation between immigration and crime.”[4]

Secondly, illegal immigration and the U.S. homeland security

Homeland security mainly refers to the relationship between the illegal immigration and terrorism. Homeland security is the national joint effort to prevent terrorist attacks in the United States, reduce the vulnerability of the U.S. response to terrorism, and reduce loss of terrorist attacks and recovery after it."[5] After "9 · 11" incident, the American public transformed their consciousness of the U.S. homeland security. The government also made defending of homeland security as one of the most important strategic task and put into lots of efforts. One of them is restructuring the immigration agency by creating the department of homeland security. Because many terrorist in the "9 · 11" incident have experiences of immigration in the United States, many of which are illegal immigrants. The incident once again rose rethinking of the relationship for illegal immigrants and homeland security the American society.

If people's perception about illegal immigration and U.S. national security before "9 · 11" event have just focused on border security and crime activities related to illegal immigrants, such as drug smuggling, trafficking in persons, so after "9 · 11" event, American society’s cognition for illegal immigrants and America's national security is more focused on the actual threats caused by the terrorist attacks on the U.S. homeland security. Before 2001, the censorship and restriction of international migrants are largely thought to be a strategy of limits and xenophobia. "However, now widely believe that international migration has important significance to safety."[6]More importantly, after "9 · 11" terrorist attacks, Americans have become unusually sensitive to homeland security and regarded immigration (particularly illegal immigration) as terrorists’ tools, that become a serious threat to U.S. national security concerns. So, does this mean that there is a direct positive relationship between the illegal immigrants and the U.S. homeland security? In other words, the increase of the illegal immigrants will inevitably lead to the deterioration of environment for the U.S. homeland security? This kind of logical judgments is biased. In fact, the impact of illegal immigration to the U.S. homeland security is indirect that it provides convenient conditions for terrorists infiltrated in the United States. "The vast majority of millions of illegal immigrants, even defectors, are not terrorists. However, illegal immigrants like tidal surge have provided a cover or a kind of culture, from which terrorists can hide or gain a reliable method of entry."[7] Moreover, the terrorist attack in the United States has a new characteristic, namely the terrorists’ localization. This also from another side indicates no necessary link between illegal immigration and terrorist activities.

Thirdly, illegal immigration and safety of American culture

If the U.S. challenges in terms of national identity completely due to illegal immigrants is obviously unfair. On the one hand, illegal immigrants culturally conservative constrains them to accept the mainstream of American culture, which constitutes a challenge for American cultural identity is indeed; On the other hand, illegal immigrants in the United States suffered discrimination and unfair treatment, is also caused by illegal immigrants into American society is an important reason. As you can imagine, in the free migration period, a lot of American society to accept immigrants, at this time there is no illegal immigration. All immigrants can be as an equal, through their own efforts to achieve their "American dream". As a result, they exist in such a society a great sense of identity and belonging. However, with the establishment of the immigration quota system, the United States for the immigrants to work in a more selective to many immigrants lost the chance come to America legally. At the same time, factors such as economic globalization and modernization of science and technology push the worldwide population flow, which makes a large number of immigrants in a variety of illegal ways to immigrate to the United States, illegal immigration is also growing. In this context, the United States stepped up controls on immigration, including through various means to combat illegal immigrants already in the beauty. Out of fear, there is no legal immigrants can only less contact with the external social identity, this will limit the illegal immigrants the opportunity to communicate with American culture, and also hindered the channel of illegal immigrants into American society. More importantly, these illegal immigrants feel the reality of the United States is not what they imagine that open, equality and justice, they are unfairly treated to their calls into question for the current American society, and even disgust. To some extent, the United States social which once lost its appeal and become refused to illegal immigrants into one of the important factors.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion from above all, there is a connection between illegal immigration and the U.S. national security. In a sense, the existence of illegal immigrants constitutes an actual or potential challenge to the U.S. national security and makes American national security environment become complicated. If, however, excessively exaggerating the correlation between them, or even think that illegal immigration is a serious threat to the national security, this viewpoint is untenable. To a large extent, the fundamental reason is that for the illegal immigrants the American society holds an attitude of prejudice and discrimination and bears psychology of looking for a "scapegoat" in an emergency situation. By which, a negative image of illegal immigrants to national security threats is artificially created. From this perspective, the American society should firstly need to evaluate and reflect on themselves rather than others.

 

 

 

 

References:

 

[1] 桑松森.国家安全与国家安全学[J].国家安全通讯,1999(2):31.

[2] Slobodan Djajic. Dynamics of Immigration Control [J]. Journal of Population Economics, Vo1. 12, No. 1, February, 1999: 45.

[3] Hanson G H, Spilimbergo A. Illegal immigration, border enforcement, and relative wages: Evidence from apprehensions at the US-Mexico border[R]. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1996.

[4] James P. Smith, Barry Edmonston. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration [M]. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1997: 386, 387.

[5] Hanson G H. The economics and policy of illegal immigration in the United States[M]. Migration Policy Institute, 2010.

[6] Hanson G H, Scheve K, Slaughter M J, et al. Immigration and the US economy: Labor-market impacts, illegal entry, and policy choices[J]. Illegal Entry, and Policy Choices (May 2001), 2001.

[7] Jan C. Ting. Immigration and National Security [J]. Orbis, Winter 2006: 42.

 

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