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A Discussion of Sima Qian and Han Historical Writing Based on His “Letter To Ren An” and Records of The Historian

2020-05-20 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- A Discussion of Sima Qian and Han Historical Writing Based on His “Letter To Ren An” and Records of The Historian,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是《史记》是伟大的史学家司马迁毕生致力于研究中国历史的一部巨著。这一历史书写对于人们了解中国历史,反映汉代历史书写的作用,提供了坚实的参考。本文以《致仁安的信》为例,以《史记》中的将军和侍从的故事为例,探讨《史记》中的主要概念及其向读者传达这些主要概念的方式。

A Discussion of Sima Qian and Han Historical Writing Based on His “Letter To Ren An” and Records of The Historian

Records of the Historian is a great book on the Chinese history in which the great Historian Sima Qian devoted all his life. This historical writing plays a key role of providing a solid reference to people to understand the Chinese history and reflecting the role of historical writing during the Han Dynasty. In this article, it is to discuss the major concepts included in the Grand Historian and the way he used to communicate those major concepts to the reader based on specific examples from the text of his “Letter to Ren An” and his story about the general and the retainer in Records of the Historian.

 

The main concept and the objective intended to express by Sima Qian in the Records of the Historian is the authenticity based on drawing a wide range of classical works. Sima Qian wrote a historical record, with a serious attitude, and the spirit of the record is shown by his “Letter to Ren An”. Just as he wrote to his friend Ren An in“Letter to Ren An”, during the writing of  Records of the Historian he “gathered and brought together all the old traditions of the world that were lost and scattered”(Qian, translator by Watson, 1993, p.236). Just at the bottom of translated version of Records of the Historian, it can be seen that a lot of classical historical works appeared in the lists of reference. This shows how widely Sima Qian has red.  In addition to documents , there are material obtained from the field investigation, which are the important sources of materials for the writing of Records of the Historian by Sima Qian. What of particular value is that Sima Qian did a careful analysis and selection of historical materials. He left the capital Changan many times across mountains and rivers, to have a field visits of historical sites. For example, in the bibliography of Chen She, it was written that Chen She’s grave still “enjoyed blood and flesh of sacrifice”(Qian, translator by Watson, 1993, p.236). The customs, diplomatic situation, religious situation, business situation, astronomical calendar, geography of thousands of years is to be reflected in historical works. In addition, in the selection of characters, Sima Qian did not select them according to their official or social status, but their actual performance. For example, he wrote many businessmen, doctors from the lower or middle social class. His article is fair, realistic and reliable, which reflected Sima Qian's scientific attitude and historical records of the truth.

 

However, the collection of materials made a careful analysis and selection, eliminated some nonsense. Sima Qian's historical records to the characters as a historical event center of the writing, making the lack of continuity of historical events. Sima Qian first created a genre with man as the center of historic events, and always describe a person 's life story in his writing. As a result of focus on writing centered on man, and man’s complexity , there is subjective feature of Sima Qian's writing. For example in the writing of Xiang Yu, character, Sima Qian had a lot of sympathy for him, and with a very full of enthusiasm wrote the failure of the hero. He not only praised his brave, but also criticizes his brutality. Thus, in addition to record the fact and the historical events, at the same time, he was mixing into his own feelings in the  depict of the image of the historical figures and was making an evaluation them from a perspective of future generations who pay his last respects. Thus, his writing is filled and mixed with too much personal emotion, especially after Sima Qian difficult situation in his late years.  it is inevitable for him who have embraced difficult issues to carry out too many emotional description, from his point of view. Just as Sima Qian remarked in “Letter to Ren An”, he wrote  Records of the Historian to “ examine the events of the past and investigate the principle behind their successes and failure”(Qian, translator by Watson, 1993, p.236). It can be seen that it is not just a historical records, but a book where he could discover laws of the world with his own wills and perspective. It is no wonder that in individual characters biography such as Li Guang, there were some exaggeration. Li Guang is better at playing defense against, mobilizing the morale of the generals, rather than attack, and strategy. But under the writing of Sima Qian, he was so prominent in every aspect. his love and hate of all characters is clearly expressed in the narrative. This view of Sima Qian for Li Guang, is more or less, motivated by a personal emotion. For people living in the era of Sima Qian, there is a little God perspective to view descendants and to blame their predecessors. This emotional judgment constitutes main flaws of his Records of the Historian.

 

Based on his “Letter to Ren An” and Records of the Historian, there are some conflicting concepts expressed by Sima Qian, that is, the unity of authenticity and emotion, which is communicated through drawing a wide range of classical works and personal investigation of historical facts.

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