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Cultural Moral Relativism

2020-05-20 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文

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下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Cultural Moral Relativism,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是文化道德相对主义是指从文化的角度看,道德价值观只相对于某一特定的立场是对的或是错的,没有任何立场比其他任何立场享有独特的特权。或者可以换一种方式说,没有一种道德价值观是绝对正确或错误的,同样的道德价值观会从不同文化的人的角度来评价是非。以美国和中国的道德价值观为例,一夜情在美国颇受欢迎和接受,但在中国却会受到中国法律的谴责和指责。也就是说,不同文化的人对一夜情会有不同的看法,不能直接判断是非。

Cultural Moral Relativism

Cultural moral relativism means the phenomenon that moral values are right or wrong only relative to some particular standpoint from the perspective of culture and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others. Or maybe it can be put in another way that no moral values are absolutely right or wrong and the same moral values will be evaluated as right and wrong from the point of view of people from different cultures. Just take the moral values in the United States and in China as an example, one night stand in the United States is quite popular and acceptable while it will be condemned and blamed in China according to the Chinese law. That is to say, people from different cultures will have different opinions toward one night stand and it can not be directly judged as right or wrong.

When it comes to the given scenario, I have to say that I won’t accept my colleague’s decision that no injection should be done to the family of four with me. The rationale why I would choose to oppose my colleague’s decision lies in that the moral relativism should be dealt with in a different way based on the different situations in the reality, especially when it is a matter of life and death. To put it more specifically, relativism refers to different things to different “academic cultures” (Sommers and Sommers, p. 97), from which we can get that different things can have different interpretations when they are in different cultural backgrounds. Therefore even though it is thought to be morally wrong to be injected with medications that do not come from their own healing traditions in that particular culture which are bound up with their religion, it should not be regarded as morally wrong when seen from my culture. In the opposite, it will be morally wrong for me if I do not try my best to save the life of those four people with me and I will get my conscience smitten afterwards. It can be understood in this way that the culture I am from determines that I have to spare no efforts to rescue others no matter how hard it might be.

Also, Herodotus has illustrated that people prefer the customs of their own country over those of all other countries (Sommers and Sommers, p. 78), which can well indicate that one’s own culture surpasses that of other countries. Taking Herodotus’ view into consideration, it can be readily predicted that when one’s own culture is in conflict with other cultures, one will tend to do as what is specified by one’s own culture without taking any regard of other cultures. So a fair knowledge can be obtained that I would choose to inject the entire family even if I have to give it to them against their will. As for me, the most important thing is to obey the requirements put forward by the culture I am from so that I won’t have the feeling that I have done something wrong. In this way, I can save the life of the family of four without violating my own culture so that I won’t feel regretful later on.

Just as what has been stated by Ruth Benedict, “What one society approves may be disgraceful and unacceptable to another. Moral rules, like rules of etiquette or styles of dress, vary from society to society. Morality is culturally relative.” (Sommers and Sommers, p. 79). It is obvious that Ruth Benedict as well suggests the differences in the moral values among different societies and moral values are culturally relative, which helps justify the view that the same moral value may produce completely different understandings when seen by people from different cultural backgrounds. Blankly speaking, it is thought to be morally wrong to be injected with medications that do not come from their own healing traditions in that particular culture which are bound up with their religion, but it does not matter at all in other cultures. Thus I can perform my own responsibility to vaccinate those people so as to stop them from dying of that deadly disease.

The reason why I would like to inject the entire family but not only children is that both the adults and the children should be equally handled when life is concerned. It is known that the children should definitely be vaccinated in that they are not deeply influenced by their own culture so that they may not hold that it is morally wrong for them to be injected with medications that do not come from their own healing traditions. At the same time, the infant is the one that has not formed the awareness toward culture, leading to no cultural violation when being injected. However, many relativists deem that the adults should not be injected because they may desire for death rather than survival out of the injection of medications that do not come from their own healing traditions. For the adults, they will suffer much inside due to the violation of their own culture and it can be more miserable than death.

Loretta Kopelman has opposed the view of some relativists that “an action is right if it is approved in a personal culture and wrong if it is disapproved” and she puts forward that each and every one can engage themselves in meaningful intercultural discussions about right and wrong (Sommers and Sommers, p. 94). Here we can find that people from a foreign culture can also play a role in judging whether the moral values in a certain culture is true or false, which can powerfully negate the relativist theory of morality. In addition, it further states that as long as people from a foreign culture hold that morality of a culture is not appropriately judged, they can involve themselves in discussing about it and even change it in the end. Therefore if I am not in favor of the regulation of this particular culture, I can as well propose my own dissenting opinion and do what I should do. That is why I would choose not to accept my colleague’s decision and inject the entire family at last to save their life even if it is against their will.

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