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Comparison of immigration between early China and modern China

2020-05-12 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Report范文


下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文-A Brief Comparison of the Early Chinese Immigrants and the Modern Chinese Immigrants目前,随着全球化的发展,移民已经成为一个越来越普遍和受欢迎的概念。越来越多的中国人决定出国旅游、教育、职业或结婚,其中许多人最终定居国外。加拿大作为一个美丽而独特的国家,吸引着越来越多的中国人到那里生活。相比之下,100多年前,也有数百名中国人去了加拿大,其中许多人从此留在那里。从早期移民到现代移民,这些华裔加拿大人肯定有相似之处;有一些东西即使时间流逝也不会改变。然而,早期加拿大人与现代加拿大人在社会地位、文化障碍、生活条件等方面也存在着诸多差异,这些差异和变化正是本文所要研究的。此外,这项研究还想看看它们是如何在文学作品中得到体现的。


At present, with the development of globalization, immigration has become an increasingly common and welcomed concept. More and more Chinese are making decisions to go abroad either for travel, education, career or marriage, and many of them settled down in foreign countries in the end. Canada, as a beautiful and unique country, is attracting an increasingly amount of Chinese to go and live there. In contrast, more than 100 years ago, there are also hundreds of Chinese went to Canada, with many of whom stayed there ever since. From the early immigrants to modern immigrants, those Chinese Canadians surely have similarities; have things that don’t change even as time goes by. However, there are also many differences among the situations of early Chinese Canadians and the modern onestheir social status, cultural barriers, their living conditions, etc. Those differences and changes are exactly what this paper attempts to learn. Moreover, the research also wants to have a look at how they have been reflected in literary works.

As reform and opening up policy has caused great change both on Chinese society and it’s international role and international polices, many aspects of immigration before and after the policy was carried out are largely different. Therefore, Chinese immigrants in Canada can be generally divided into two types: immigrants settled down in Canada before reforming and opening up and immigrants settled down in Canada after reforming and opening up. The former group of immigrants can be defined as early immigrants and the latter group can be defined as modern immigrants. In this essay, the two terms would be specifically used according to these definitions.

In 1850s large amounts of Chinese flooded into Canada because of the so-called gold rush. This can be traced back to 1858 when gold fields were discovered along Fraser River and Thompson River in British Columbia, Canada. Hearing this news that gold can be easily found there, countless of people went to these regions and formed a phenomenon called “the gold rush”. Many Chinese, mainly Chinese workers in America entered into the Fraser River Valley to seek for gold and by which to make fortune.

Another reason for Chinese to flood into Canada was the construction of the Pacific Ocean Railway in 1880s, which laid across the whole Canadian land and was constructed by the Canadian government to utilize the resources of western Canada. For this reason, many a Chinese was hired as workers.

The backwardness of then China was also a motivation for them to leave and settled down in Canada. In 19th century, China was bothered both by foreign colonization ad domestic instability. Ordinary Chinese of that age suffered form not only physically but also mentally: poverty, sovereignty, opium, colonization, the strike of foreign culture and ideas, etc. As a result immigration seemed to be the only approach for the then Chinese and their kids to pursue their freedom, happiness and get rid of poverty. Canada of 19th century can be a good immigrant destination for them.

After the reform and opening up policy was carried out in 1970s, China has witnessed tremendous economic and social development. By now China’s economic volume even surpassed Canada’s. However, every year there are still thousands of Chinese who choose to go to countries like Canada and settle down there. There are many reasons for them to immigrate to Canada.

Canada has a beautiful natural environment and comfortable climate. It occupied a large area but has a relatively small population, which, plus an aged tendency of population and decreasing birth rate, leads to a lack of labor force. Thus Canada can provide foreign immigrants with great developing space. The living quality in Canada is regarded as the best living quality in the world. Canada’s education and healthcare systems are quite good. It has to be mentioned that Canadians who have attended or attending college occupies more than 45% of its population, which is higher than most countries globally. The last reason is that nowadays in Canada racial discrimination has been largely eliminated and multiculturalism can be accepted easier.

As the early immigrants mainly came from rural areas in China, usually they were in low education level and most of them didn’t know how to speak foreign languages such as English and French. Because of these and that it is racialized state actions that must be brought to the front of any discussion of the barriers (Shanti, 2006), early Canadian immigrants usually worked as manual workers with low salary, which leads to their bad living condition. During the gold rush and the construction of the Pacific Ocean Railway, most Chinese immigrants worked as employed workers in goldwashing, construction, agriculture and other service industry. After the exhaustion of gold fields and construction of railway, many Chinese immigrants’ career spread to other fields such as wood, coal, laundry, restaurant and agriculture. Because of their limited capital, low education level and the purpose to avoid competition with the local whites, many of them became operator of small businesses such as laundry, restaurant and grocery. They worked for a long time everyday but get only half or two third of white’s salary. Few of the early immigrants worked as non-manual workers.   

There are three kinds of Chinese Canadian now. The first type includes skilled immigrants, business immigrants (investment immigrants, entrepreneur immigrants and self-employed immigrants). After the reform and opening up, many highly educated Chinese settled down in Canada as skilled immigrants. Investment immigrants and entrepreneur immigrants are relatively less because they can only be applied when you have certain amount of net wealth and investment assets. Many overseas Chinese students in Canada tend to work and apply for skilled immigrants simultaneously after they graduate from Canadian schools. The second type is family sponsorship, which including adolescent children, parents and grandparents. Upon this one thing can be mentioned is that the generational differences in academic and psychological adjustment in Chinese children remain significant after controlling for parental education and income (Chen & Tse, 2010). At the same time family involvement in the career development of adolescents may be particularly salient among Chinese Canadian families (Young, 2003). The third type is refugee, which including refugees supported by the government, self-helped refugee and overseas refugee. The current tendency is that an increasingly amount of skilled immigrants are applying to go to Canada. Generally speaking, their career choices are presenting a characteristic of diversification. Many people are doing non-manual works and there are many businessman, professionals, even politicians among Chinese Canadians.

The modern Chinese immigrants are also facing many career problems. One of them is that their education background, working experiences and professional qualifications cannot be admitted by the professional groups of Canadian government. As a result many highly educated Chinese immigrants cannot find jobs that can make full use of their own professional advantages, which leading to a waste of talent resources and social costs. Another problem is that racial discrimination and stereotype have not been completely eliminated----some local citizens blame on Chinese Canadians for the rise of unemployment rate and criminal rate.

The early immigrants were deeply influenced by the Chinese traditional culture and ideas. They adhered to the idea of fallen leaves return to the roots, which was to revert to one's origin. That’s why early Chinese Canadians usually had the belief to get back home if they make enough money and were quire concern about the situation and destiny of China. Although they lived in a strange country, Chinese culture was the only culture they agreed with, in addition with the systemic racism and language barriers, they often lived together in Chinese community and seldom contact other races. This can be seen from a statement from the book Jin Guo: Voices of Chinese Canadian Women: My mother never attempted to Canadianize her thinking. She used to dry fish on our front yard and dry vegetables on our clothesline... we weren't allowed to wash our hair on special days (Chinese Canadian National Council. Women’s Book Committee, 1992). Compared with this, the modern immigrants are more open to other cultures, especially Canadian culture. To a large extent the modern immigrants have integrated into the Canadian society, culture and ideology. They get accustomed to a mixed cultural environment, by which their thoughts and ideas were enriched by this kind of combination.

As a reflect of reality and culture, Chinese Canadian literature has gained great development. Chao, Lien once said that the early Chinese Canadian literature is  community based (1997). They made attempts to write about group experience of Chinese Canadian and community history, at the same time criticize the racial discrimination of Canadian society and hegemony thought of the white culture. Its target was to reconstruct Chinese Canadians’ identity model. To contrast, the modern Chinese Canadian literature transformed their focus from surviving pressure and cultural conflicts to human uniformity beyond races and districts (Chu-Wrong & Chao, 2003). In Many-mouthed Birds, the authors concluded that the Chinese Canadian literature would break the long silence of self-depression and cry from the heart bottom (Lee & Chu-Wrong, 1991). With the change of economic, political and cultural situation of Chinese Canadian is the change of literature subjects.

To conclude, the question I want to answer in this paper is: how the Chinese Canadian’s life has changed as time goes by and how these changes are reflected by literature. The following aspects were discussed in the essay: different reasons of immigration, immigrants’ different career choices, different cultural situations encountered by immigrants and different subjects of Chinese Canadian Literature. The research is important partly because there are more and more Chinese to go to Canada as immigrants and issues about this should be studied more, and partly because to know the changes that have happened is good for the understanding of the changes that are going to happen.




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