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美国论文代写:The disposable products

2017-05-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Report范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Report范文- The disposable products,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了一次性产品。如今,一次性产品是世界环境污染的重要课题。在人们的生活中,随处可以看到一次性产品。而这些一次性产品都是难以分解和回收的,甚至可能会释放有害物质,造成生活环境的严重污染。总之,一次性产品是影响生态经济环境的重要因素。

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Introduction

Disposable products and packaging is an important subject of environmental pollution in the world. The world produces 100 tons of solid waste each year, 1/3 is waste from disposable products and packaging. The United States produces waste of disposable products and packaging more than 150million tons, which produce bad influence to the marketplace and environment(Synthia and Kabir, 2015). Therefore, this paper mainly studies the impact of disposable products and packaging waste on the marketplace and environment, and analyzes the relevant policies of the new government of the United States, so as to cause people to pay more attention to environmental hazards from disposable products and packaging

Impact of packaging on the environment

Packaging waste has a very bad effect on the environment. The United States uses 380 billion disposable packaging each year, only less than 5% can be recycled. The reason why the United States uses disposable packaging is very simple, packaging is convenient and inexpensive. Basically, all the people know that a lot of environment problems have been brought from packaging waste. The national annual average production of shirts is 12 million copies; packaging box consumption reached 24 million tons, which is equivalent to cut the 168 million trees (MacBride, 2008). Each production of 10million cakes need packaging supplier cut down on a million trees in diameter of 10 cm or more. The packaging has been a threat to our environmental protection, but also caused a serious waste of resources. Some Statistics show that the amount of packaging waste is about 1/3 in the solid waste of environment. The United States urban packaging waste is 15% of solid waste, the volume is 25% of total solid waste. Therefore, the packaging impact to the environment is huge, implementation of green packaging is the inevitable trend of sustainable development of environment.

Impact of packaging on the market

Packaging has brought many negative effects on the economy. Packaging enterprises are numerous, but most of them are small and medium sized enterprises, they adopt undeveloped production equipment which cause serious environmental pollution. These enterprises do not have the ability to carry out environmental management. Therefore, the production of packaging products is high energy consumption, and cannot meet the requirements of environmental protection and green packaging system. In 2020, packaging products with paper, plastic, glass, metal will increase year by year. the United States total industrial output value will reach 450 billion dollar, of which 27million tons is paper packaging, plastic packaging reached 270.7million tons, glass packaging reached 127million tons, 38.5million tons is from metal packaging(Prell, et.al,2014). Packaging is a one-time use of waste, about 80% can only be converted into waste, and the life cycle is shorter than other industrial products, the recycling rate is low. In fact, most of the packaging waste can be recycled, but the recycle process can not controlled in a rational way. so that the economy suffered a loss, which has caused a negative impact the economic environment.

Impact of disposable products on the environment

Disposable goods have caused serious pollution to the environment. In people's life, disposable products can be seen everywhere, for example, disposable toothpaste, disposable toothbrush, a one-time toilet soap and other disposable sanitary products; disposable cups, disposable bowls, disposable tableware, disposable shopping bags, etc. According to relevant statistics, at present amount of disposable tableware is at around 120 billion, every year only foam plastic tableware consumption is up to $4 billion $700 million every year(Wilkins, 2004). All kinds of plastic products are make frompolystyrene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and other polymer materials, they are difficult to break down and recycle, it even can release harmful substances in the case of hot water, causing serious pollution of the living environment. Disposable products are an important cause of environmental pollution, but also damage the landscape, affecting urban image. Disposable products have a destructive power to the urban landscape. Disposable consumption has led to wild looting of natural resources. The United States will lose 50million cubic meters of timber a year for annual production of disposable product. And in order to produce 100milion disposable products, the United States need to cut down 250million trees. Behind the convenience and ease of disposable product, it is huge resource consumption.

Effect of disposable products on marketplace

The treatment and utilization of disposable products has become an important issue affecting the sustainable development of marketplace. As a kind of fast consumer goods, disposable goods have low price and chaos of the market, this kind of production situation is difficult to guarantee the quality of products. Due to the factor including low industry threshold and inefficient supervision system, good and bad are mixed together into the disposable supplies manufacturing enterprises; cheap disposables products flooded the market. At the same time, the shortage of resources and environmental pollution are becoming more and more serious. In terms of material of disposable products, the annual average of the national urban living garbage has been close to 16 billion T, but the disposable product consumption is about 30000000 T every year in the United States, and the resulting waste is about 16000000 T, accounting for 25% of the city's total waste volume, and annual increase is about 10%. As of 2014, disposable product materials consumption has exceeded 600million t every year in the United States (Mank and Smith, 2013). The treatment and utilization of packaging waste seriously restrict the long-term development of disposable products industry.

The analysis about new government policy on over packing

In recent years, with the enhancement of environmental protection consciousness and the deepening of the concept of sustainable development, the harm of over-packaging get more and more attention in United States, the U.S. government has also increased the legislative work in this area. Government has been playing a leading role in the global response to environmental pollution. Since Obama took office, he pay more attention to environmental pollution control. The Obama administration is pushing the response to climate change and has given priority to the development of clean energy so as to realize economic recovery and makes it become a new economic growth point in the future. In 2014, the Obama government implemented the 80 a initiatives treatment which aims at promoting economic development and employment, addressing climate change. The dealing with the over packaging has made a significant progress. The United States is the world's largest packaging power. Over-packaging has a bad influence to the whole country. For example, it causes waste of resources and pollutes the environment, disturb the market. Over packaging not only seriously affect the economy and ecology of the United States, but also affect the image of some government agencies. In order to effectively curb excessive packaging, the United States government departments continue to explore the management approach to governance over packaging

Los Angeles City Council passed through the ban on free plastic bags in 2012, 7500 stores prohibits the use of plastic bags in the next 16 months. Shoppers need to bring their own shopping bags, or buy a paper bag with 10 cents (Mank and Smith, 2013). Los Angeles thus became the largest city to restrict the use of plastic bags in supermarkets in the United States. In late 2014, California governor signed a decree to prohibit supermarket provide disposable plastic shopping bags to customers. That made California the first state to issue the ban. Currently, there are 120 counties in California have a similar ban(Synthia and Kabir, 2015). The above policy is a step in the right direction; it will help reduce the pollution of plastic on beaches, parks and the sea. The act also provides that, since July 1, 2016, convenience stores also prohibit the use of disposable plastic bags. The act also provides provide a $200 million loan to enterprises with production of plastic bags, help them transferring production of reusable shopping bags. Since the Obama administration came to power, New York City Council tends to carry on a tax plan. The tax plan is to charge 10 cents for the use of plastic bags and paper bags in supermarket. Supporters argue that tax will bring environmental benefits. The United States new government's over packaging policy is characterized by low consumption, low emissions, high energy efficiency, so as to achieve sustainable economic growth and environment protection. The United States government is intended to maintain and create a higher productivity with the above policy, which can make coordination and sustainable development from economy, society and environment.

Conclusion

In short, disposable product and packaging is an important factor affecting the ecological and economic environment. If people have a correct understanding about the relationship between disposable product and packaging and environment, they can understand the importance and urgency of disposable product and packaging recycling. It is helpful to make a significant contribution to the global environment, so as to create a path for the sustainable development of human being.

Reference

Synthia,I.J,and Kabir,S, (2015),An Investigation of Cosumer Attitudes Towards New Varieties of Shopping Bags: Exploring Eco-Awareness and the Possibility of Behavior Change,49(5),183-196

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_developing_areas/summary/v049/49.5.synthia.html

MacBride,S,(2008),The Immorality of Waste: Depression-Era Perspectives in the Digital Age,Substance,32(2), 71-77

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/substance/summary/v037/37.2.macbride.html

Prell, C, Feng,F Sun,XJ, Geores,S and Hubacek,H,(2014),The Economic Gains and Environmental Losses of US Consumption: A World-Systems and Input-Output Approach,93(1),405-428

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/social_forces/summary/v093/93.1.prell.html

Wilkins,M,(2004),Unwanted Company: Foreign Investment in American Industries (review)Enterprise & Society, 5(4), 717-719

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/enterprise_and_society/summary/v005/5.4wilkins.html

Mank ,B.C.and Smith,S,(2013),The Environmental Rights Revolution: A Global Study of Constitutions, Human Rights, and the Environment by David R. Boyd (review),Human Rights Quarterly, 35(4), 1021-1042

http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/human_rights_quarterly/summary/v035/35.4.mank.html

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