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亚太地区的低碳经济问题分析

2016-12-25 来源: 51due教员团队 类别: Report范文

“亚太地区低碳经济问题分析”,这篇论文主要描述的是在近几个世纪当中,文化产业都得到了较为快速的发展,工业文明推动了人类社会进步,但也带来而来环境污染的问题,空气变得浑浊、水源遭到污染,这种环境背景下,在亚太地区强调发展低碳经济的背景下,酒店行业这类需要大量资源运营,排放大量污染气体的行业,是不利于环境保护的开展。

1.Introduction
In the past few centuries, industrial cultural has quickly developed while the influence f humanity over the natural environment has quickly swelled, indeed industrial civilization development marks the great change that human can outwit Mother nature, However, As the mature development of Industrial civilization, We can hear people complain about the bad environment including air pollution, poor water quality, dust all over the sky, rubbish everywhere, white pollution, noise pollution, Such environment will drown us in suffocation, pain and despair. Pollution caused by Energy application and the incentive has widely been known and accepted by people yet(Stanley,2009). Under this background, environment control comes into being, especially low carbon economy, the new conception is very popular in the world, and set off an unprecedented wave of energy saving and emission reduction. The conception of low carbon economy can be carried out based on the reconsideration of the unsustainable development that the industrial civilization can not satisfy (Kal,2010). Low carbon economy is the new economy form focus on low energy consumption, low pollution and low emission, and is a great progress after agriculture civilization, industrial civilization of human society.


2.Low Carbon Economy in Asia-Pacific Region

In a wide sense of world, Asia-pacific region refers to Pacific Rim, including North America, Australasia, and the Far East apart from Western Pacific area. The most dynamic country and area is concentrated in the region. Those countries have very closed economic relationship between each other, and have greater influence and power in the world politics economy. The economy in the Asia-pacific region is developing rapidly and becomes the most powerful region in the world. 
The development of economy society caused global warming due to large amounts of carbon dioxide. Climate change leads to more and more climate refugees. Energy saving and emission reduction has become in the world scope the mutual recognition. It is expected that Carbon dioxide emissions in the Asia-pacific region will becomes 55% in 2030 from 42% in 2005(Joel Stern,2006)The region also affords great influences caused by climate changes, especially some climate sensitivity industry such as Agriculture and forestry. Now various governments in Asia-pacific region try best to realize the cooperation between economy growth and environmental sustainable development(Jaffe,1994).At present, more than 22 countries in Asia-pacific region promise develop low carbon economy and make relevant policies( Porter. 2006)


2.1 Leading Government Response to the trend

At present, China is in the stage of rapid industrialization and urbanization and has huge potential for economic growth, However, Urbanization in China faces many challenge such as energy scarce, environmental pollution and climate change. Economy development decides that the urbanization in the future is unavoidable, China government makes policy that urbanization is the essential component for low carbon economy. Low emission, low power consumption and high efficiency are the standardization for the planning, designing and construction of Urbanization.China Government has developed low carbon economy as the great strategy in the future although there is no emission reduction structure is initiated at Copenhagen conference in the later of 2009. The State Council held an executive meeting on 25th, Nov. 2009 to state that our countries should greenhouse gas reduction should have a larger reduction of 40%-45% in 2020 than 2005,which is a binding targets fit into long term planning of national economy development and social development.Japan is a country of the scarcity of natural resources, and all through the ages values energy saving and emission reduction. In recent years, Japan government vigorously has always dominated low carbon society as well as mobilized the policy of energy saving and emission reduction planning. Japanese PM Yasuo Fukuda put forward the famous strategy “Yasuo Fukuda blueprint" in June, 2008, which refers that low carbon society is the target of low carbon strategy of Japan(Hamamoto,2009). Yasuo Fukuda blueprint included technology innovation, system revolution and lifestyle change of low carbon development, one important target is that greenhouse gas reduction should have a larger reduction of 60%-80% in 2050 than the current conditions. Japan government passed the proposal of low carbon society construction action plan, which confirm value target and schedule for Yasuo Fukuda blueprint in September, 2008.Janpan published draft policy of Green economy and social reformation which aims to strengthen the low carbon economy in Japan through policy of greenhouse gas reduction in April, 2009.


2.2 Enterprise Response to the Trend

Environment pollution and destruction are getting worse and worse in the modern world, countries in the world pay more attention to the protection and sustainable development of environment when developing economy. With the development of the times, follow the trend and the needs of the community, low carbon economy is the sustainable development of modern enterprises development inevitable.
Therefore, low carbon economy planning is a fight to death for enterprises. Companies are rethinking their positioning and development strategy if they want to get huge business opportunity and vast potential for future development.Enterprise development face great chanllenge since low carbon economy transformation comes out,which lead to great change of enterprise value system and evaluation standard, Enterprise need positively do action and graspe opportunity ,and change production model if they want to win low carbon competition, adjust new rule and international division of labor. Meanwhile enterprise should be brave in assuming responsibility of low carbon(Mohr,2002).
The president of India Suzlon introduced that they have wind energy industry in 21 countries, including large wind power base in German, India and USA. Their installed capacity of wind energy reached 11MWP, and realizes high cost performance and commercialization.
The president of SK group in Korea said that the groups adopts three treatment to realize energy saving and low carbon. One method is to change lifestyle, and change enterprise culture and production model. Another is to make technology innovation of process and make green recreation of product.


3. Low-carbon Development Model in Hospitality

Low carbon economy is a economy model based on low power consumption, low pollution and low emission in the times that all the countries joins hands to response the climate change. service industry is the important component of economy development, as well as the industry with high power consumption, high emission and high pollution,those eneterprise in the hospitality industry have the bounden responsibility to promote low carbon economy including hotels industry,tourism,catering industry,etc.
At present,The added value of service indutry is 68% of GDP propotion in the world structure,even in the backward coutries,the values for service sector is 52%.it is no doubt that service industry plays a key role in the devleopmet of world economy.Manufacturing industry indeed bring dynamic to employment and tax,service sector at the same time can have big influence.from economy perspercitive service sector is profitable.Especialy in the time of development of low carbon economy,service sector has unlimited highlight to wake up the awarness of environment protection of the public.For example,hotels industry can make slogan, Fluorescent writing Board,print low carbon sign on the washing utensils,every customer in the hotel can get a hint that our world is collecting all the power to protect Mother land.Tourism as the green industry representative with less resources consumption,can give peope some suggestion that all the civilizatiion people now preserved need care and protection,custmoer have no reason to break the harmony between humanbeing and nature.


3.1 Low-carbon economy effects on hotel industr

As high consumption industry, hotels always need consume large material and energy, and discharge large air pollutant, which can cause city pollution of carbon emission. Therefore hotels industry is the industry with high power consumption, emission and pollution. Energy cost is higher than before as the demands of global energy consumption becomes larger. Energy cost in hotel is 8-15% in the business cost of hotel. For example,a Medium-sized three-stars hotel may consumpe coal enerngy of 1400tons which can discharge carbon dioxide of 4200tons,smust of 70tons,sulfur dioxide of 28tons; however,a large scale hotel with area of 80000-100000S.Q.W can comsumpe standard coal of 130000-180000tons,so energy saving is imperative (Maria&Victoria,2011). low carbon economy not only show the social responsibility of hotel industry, and can build good social image for hotel, reduce operation cost of hotel and promote greatly the profitability of hotels. Due to the low carbon economy policies of various governments, benefit driving and market demand for hotel, many hotels will change the pursuit from star service to green service. Green hotel is a trend in the current hotel industry which refers to energy saving and environment protection, safety and health in hotels. Green hotels can realize resources maximize efficiency and minimum environmental influence.


3.2 Low-carbon economy effects on Tourism Industry

With the development of economy, follow the trend and the needs of the community, low carbon economy is the sustainable development of modern enterprises development inevitable, especially tourism adopt low carbon promotion to attract customer. It is no doubt that tourism has its own advantage to develop low carbon economy. Firstly, tourism can positively face the climate change and push forward low carbon economy because the added value of unit is only 1/11 of industry(Nichola Stern,2006), so it can be the good model for the development of low carbon economy. Second, the development of tourism has closed relationship with environment; tourism can realize resources recycle with fewer resources, and help us afford part of carbon responsibility. Namely the product of tourism is culture and environment, Environment protection and culture discovering is the internal dynamic of tourism, which is help for tourism form deep benefit mechanism, guides tourism professional to develop low carbon promotion strategy. Moving to the last point, industry compensation (Robert ,2010) can be realized in the low carbon tourism. for examples, electrified wagons is used as the substitute for car in sightseeing visit, hiking can be put forward during mountain climbing. Tourism is not only competitive industry in low carbon economy, but is the highlight and vanguard in the environmental revolution.


3.3 Low Carbon Demonstration Enterprise Analysis

Due to the development of low carbon economy is becoming increasingly popular in the world, low carbon lifestyle is generally preferred among the public, meanwhile,government put forward various policy and meatures to promote low carbon economy.some enterprises with long term vision do best to combined the low carbon spirit with their product,and have a great reputation about eco-friendly product.


3.3.1. Power Valley Jinjiang International Hotel

At present,more and more enterprise join the ranks of development of low economy, especially enterprise in the hotels industry, their need make more strategy to perfect Environmental Situation and Indices due to the high energy consumption.Fortunately we discover an excellent example for hotel operation.
Power Valley Jinjiang International Hotel is a comprehensive international five-star business hotel integrated reception,relaxion,catering,exhibition and international conference,which is invested and built by Yingli group,the famous photovoltaic product manufacuturer in the world,and is professionally managed by Jin Jiang International Management Corporation. The hotel is located in Baoding city(heartland of China power valley) of Hebei jn China, and uses building-integrated photovoltaics with solar cells embedded in the glass walls, is a landmark of China power valley and new resource base.The design conception of Power Valley Jinjiang International Hotel is fashion dress of metal and glass.the whole design absorbs modern design component such as internatioanl fashion,high quality. 
Design essence to combined PV glass wall into the integration construction.PV glass wall has adavantages of sunshade,environmental protection,energy saving and sound insulation
The hotel uses waste water pump system for heating and cooling system,which improve the application of renewable resources.
China power valley improves the integral image since the hotel really make sucesss for low carbon development with the application of the technology of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems,BIPV technolgoy and wastewater pump technology.


3.3.2. Resort island of Bali

Low carbon economy does not mean sacrifice luxury,Wilderness travelling may not cast away the modern tools and preparation.low carbon economy pays more attention to the environment protection,cherishes what the nature has bless with us (Lona,1993),more important,we can use modern material do good to humanbeing. Resort island of Bali can be the vanguard of low carbon economy.Bali attracts hundreds of thousands vistors to spend holiday there,however,large population of vistors also bring much more environment press,especially Bali climate change conference show the important position of environmental protection of Bali.To our delight,Bali has its own low carbon policy and implement perfectly. 
Firstly Resorts in Bali do not clean bedclothes and towel for customer during rice growth season in Bali,which can save much more water.
Secondly,Golf is forbidden in Bali since golf club is high energy comsumption and high pollution industry
Thirdly, enterprise with environmental awareness is welcome in Bali,and local government make some policy to encourage enterprise operation with low carbon ideas.


4.Conclusion

Low carbon economy not only means that manufacturing business need quick eliminate backward productivity and improve technology innovation of energy saving, service sector adopts relevant measures to promote low carbon economy,but guide the public to adjust lifestyle with low carbon conception,build universal environmental protection system.Low carbon has influenced greatly on government,enterprise,and the public,government make various policies and strategy to stick to low carbon economy and envrionmental protection,enterprise make effort to change production structure and build renewable resource development model,and the public do from the simple thing save the energy resources and reduce the pollution, so that we will have a better circumstance for our life.low carbon econmy strategy is not one thing for one people,that is a long term targe for us,only we,the human being, should joined together into a federation,we can cope with the pollution,climate change and receive peace and peace and prosperity.


In a word, Earth is pretty much a mosaic of different ecosystems rather than larger, contiguous habitats.we have incumbent responsibility to protect her, low carbon economy is not only a strategy to deal with envrionment change,but is a love and care to our Mother earth. Since we confirm low carbon as the main orientation and rate of growth for benefits,we need try our best to stride forward to it.

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