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Analysis on the influencing factors and training strategies of female physical exercise in Chinese Universities

2020-10-22 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

Analysis on the influencing factors and training strategies of female physical exercise in Chinese Universities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of content

Abstract 2

1.1 Introduction 4

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

2.1 Women's sports in America, Germany and Japan 5

2.2 Women's sports in China 6

2.3 Methods to improve women's sports activities 8

3.0 Theoretical framework 10

3.1 Sports consciousness 10

3.1.1 Sports Cognition 10

3.1.2 sports emotion 11

3.2 sports behavior 11

4.0 Research purpose 12

5.0 Methodology 12

5.1 Research object 12

5.2 Research method 13

5.2.1  Questionnaire survey 13

5.2.1.1 Questionnaire design 13

5.2.1.2 Form of questionnaire distribution 13

5.2.1.3 Questionnaire analysis tools 14

6.1 Sports consciousness 14

6.1.1 sports preference 14

6.1.2 Recognition of the importance of sports activities 15

6.1.3 Sports function 15

6.2 sports behavior 17

6.2.1 frequency of participation 17

6.2.2 sports events 18

6.2.3 duration of extracurricular sports activities 19

6.2.4 influencing factors of sports behavior 20

7.0 Discussion 25

7.1 sports awareness 25

7.2 sports behavior 26

8.0 conclusions and recommendations 29

Reference 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Research question

 

1. What is the status quo of female college students in sports consciousness and behavior?

 

Research methods

 

In this paper, the female college students in China are taken as the participants of investigation, trying to understand the consciousness and behavior of college female students to participate in sports exercise through the methods of literature, questionnaire and interview, and give a reasonable plan to cultivate their consciousness and behavior to participate in physical exercise.

 

Results and Findings

 

1. The initiative of female college students to participate in extracurricular sports activities shows a downward trend with the growth of age.

2. Their participation in sports activities is relatively simple, mainly badminton, volleyball and other competitive events

3. Some senior female students have a higher awareness of the importance of participating in extracurricular sports activities, but their enthusiasm to participate in fitness has declined.

4. Facilities, sports, organization and management of extracurricular sports activities are the objective factors affecting female college students to participate in sports activities.

KEY WORDS: female students, sports activities, sports consciousness, sports behavior

 

1.1 Introduction 

With the development of physical education in China, the sports cultural life of college students has changed dramatically. Some new and fashionable sports, such as billiards, archery, golf, boulder and so on, are becoming popular in the university campus. These sports greatly enrich the campus culture, and also enrich the extracurricular life of teachers and students. College students are the builders of China's future. Their physical exercise quality has an important impact on China's future comprehensive strength. With the continuous progress and development of society, the social components have also changed. The former college students mainly face the academic pressure and economic pressure. With the continuous progress of society, the pressure of college students also increases, such as: academic pressure, economic pressure, employment pressure, family pressure, etc., which have caused greater psychological burden and mental burden to today's college students, and is extremely adverse to their physical health. Therefore, it is particularly important to strengthen the development of College Students' physical and mental health. Physical exercise can not only strengthen the physique of college students, but also release their psychology, get rid of the mental perplexity brought by study, life, employment and other factors, adjust themselves and reflect their own value through physical exercise. 

Female college students are an important part of college students. According to the current survey and research in China, female college students account for more than one-third of the total number of college students. Female college students are the future of China, and they need to bear the social and family responsibilities in the future. Therefore, in order to meet the needs of China's future society and family, school must pay attention to and cultivate the physical and mental health of female college students. So what measures should schools take to improve the physical and mental quality of female college students. Practice has proved that: purposeful, planned and organized physical exercise for female college students is a practical and good way. Through physical exercise, not only can the comprehensive physical quality of female college students be improved, but also can make them make great progress in speed, endurance, flexibility, sensitivity, coordination, explosive force and so on. It also has great help in the aspects of emotional stability, concentration of attention, reaction speed of action and will quality. Therefore, the school should carry out various sports, comprehensively cultivate the physical and psychological quality of female college students, so that they can form correct sports values, and develop lifelong sports awareness.

In this paper, the female college students in China are taken as the participants of investigation, trying to understand the attitude and behavior of college female students to participate in sports exercise through the methods of literature, questionnaire, and give a reasonable plan to cultivate their attitude and behavior to participate in physical exercise. Based on the analysis of the present situation of female students' participation in physical exercises in China's colleges and universities, what problems need to be solved urgently in the process of their participation in physical exercises: how can schools better and pertinently solve the problem of female students' participation in physical exercises; how to cultivate female students' good attitude and behavior in physical exercises; How to guide Chinese college women to change their good attitude towards physical exercise into healthy and scientific physical exercise behavior. Through the analysis of this paper, this paper hopes that it can help Chinese college women to form healthy physical exercise behavior, and provide advice and suggestions for Chinese college women to better participate in physical exercise, so that they can experience the fun of participating in physical exercise.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Women's sports in America, Germany and Japan

Messner (2002) elaborated the development history and current situation of American female college students' sports. With the reform of American school sports, the change of sports structure and the change of sports concept, the current situation of female college students' sports policy is: the sports management, form and plan of female college students have made some progress through the reform of sports policy, not behind the development of men's sports (Osipov et al.2017). In the United States, female college students have their own characteristics in physical exercise. It mainly presents the following three forms of organization: extracurricular sports activities in class, extracurricular sports activities between schools and sports associations or clubs (PROMIS, erevelles & Matthews, 2001).

Brettschneider (2001) thinks that in Germany, school sports and social sports are organically combined without too obvious classification. The contents and forms of physical exercise are rich and varied, and the atmosphere of female college students' physical exercise is very good.

Ikeda (2010) analyzes the Japanese sports culture from the training objectives. Compared with China's focus on the progress of human reality, Japan pays more attention to the stimulation of human potential.

2.2 Women's sports in China

This paper searched the articles about Chinese college students' physical exercise on the Internet, and the results showed that there are four types of articles: the research on the reform of physical exercise activities; the research on the current situation and influencing factors of physical exercise; the research on the function of physical exercise activities; the research on the development mode of extracurricular physical activities. Among the four research types, 3.1% are about the reform of physical exercise, 30.3% are about the status quo investigation and influencing factors, 58.1% are related to the function of physical exercise, and 8.5% are related to the mode of extracurricular physical activity. From the above studies, 6.3% of the research literatures are devoted to female college students. For example, Liang (2006) & Fung (1992) proposed to reform physical education, focusing on improving female college students' awareness of physical exercise and their ability to independently carry out physical activities, and physical education should conform to the characteristics of female college students themselves. Li, Kawabata & Zhang (2018) conduct a survey of 700 female students, the results showed that: Female College Students' awareness of physical exercise was not strong, the level of sports consumption was low, the main activity in leisure time was learning, followed by Internet, shopping, and did not integrate physical exercise into life. Through the analysis, this paper ranks the reasons for the weak awareness of female college students in order of importance: cultural environment factors, social environment factors, psychological factors, physiological factors, natural environment factors. Hu & ye (2017) conducted a questionnaire survey on the current situation of female college students' physical exercise in some colleges and universities, and compared the female college students in public colleges and private colleges in some aspects of physical exercise, found out the gap between them and analyzed the reasons, so as to provide a theoretical reference for further comprehensive development of female college students' physical exercise, The results show that female college students have a more comprehensive understanding of the significance of physical exercise, but the sports behavior is not positive enough, the time, frequency and intensity of exercise are not enough, and need to be further improved. Chang & Lin (2007) thinks that there are many factors that affect the physical exercise behavior of female college students, personal interest is the main reason, followed by time arrangement and sports habits, and then external factors. Li & Zhang (2000) and LV & Takami (2015) pointed out that college students' self exercise ability is poor, and their awareness of physical exercise needs to be strengthened, and put forward countermeasures to cultivate their awareness of physical exercise. Chung, Liu & Chen (2013) and Kerr, Au & Lindner (2004) have studied the consciousness of physical exercise of Postgraduates in Colleges and universities. The results show that they have a very positive attitude to the benefits of physical exercise to personal physical and mental health, but they lack the awareness of active exercise, and lack of physical exercise knowledge. It is necessary to strengthen the guidance of the consciousness of physical exercise of postgraduates to combine entertainment, knowledge seeking, creation and intellectual development. Riordan & Jinxia (1996) pointed out that physical education class should extend to extracurricular physical education. It is the inevitable trend of physical education in Colleges and universities to combine the in class teaching with extracurricular physical education. Hai Yuan (2003) put forward that to strengthen the extracurricular physical exercise, we should strengthen the consciousness of physical exercise, cultivate the interest of physical exercise, strengthen the guidance of physical exercise, and strengthen the propaganda of physical education so that students can clearly understand the value of physical exercise. Feng & bin (2008) tested college students' body shape such as: height, weight, chest circumference) and physical ability (speed, endurance, flexibility, sensitivity, strength, explosive force), and concluded that the current college students' body shape indicators are healthier than before, while the physical ability indicators have declined in different degrees. In view of the current situation of College Students' physical exercise, this paper proposes to strengthen the physical quality exercise of college students, cultivate the awareness and ability of physical exercise, improve the teaching methods and methods of physical education, cultivate students' interest in learning, fundamentally change students' learning state of physical education, and actively guide students to participate in physical education. Jian (2004) studied the current situation of College Students' physical exercise by studying the motivation, form, recognition and teaching reform of College Students' participation in physical exercise, and put forward that firstly, college students' awareness and knowledge of physical exercise should be strengthened; secondly, students' process evaluation should be emphasized, change the single evaluation method (Ying, 2011); Wu & Zhang (2009) and Chung & Liu (2013) think that to strengthen the reform of physical education, all of them are developing in the direction of improving students' physical quality and life-long physical consciousness.

To sum up, China and other sports powers in the world have formed a certain theoretical system for the specific theoretical research on the sports awareness and behavior of college women, but there is no systematic and comprehensive research on the influencing factors. In terms of the reasons for influencing the physical exercise of female college students, it mainly focuses on the analysis of personal interests, sports environment and other aspects, The analysis of influencing factors is not comprehensive and thorough enough. In addition, there are still many problems to be solved in the physical exercise of female college students.

Therefore, this paper starts from the current situation of Chinese female college students' physical exercise, finds problems in the current situation, aims to comprehensively and deeply analyze the influencing factors of the problems, and provides some countermeasures for promoting the current situation of female college students' physical exercise, and provides some theoretical basis for the research in this field.

2.3 Methods to improve women's sports activities

Jian Ping (2000), Wang & Biddle (2003) pointed out that women's sports events need to pay attention to dance sports and recreational sports. Kondric, et al. (2013) and masmanidis, gargalianos & Kosta (2009) argue that colleges and universities need to take students as the main body of education. Teachers should only play a guiding role, pay attention to cultivating students' own needs and habits, provide more opportunities for students to show themselves, and emphasize the overall development of students. Wallhead & ntoumanis (2004) pointed out that college students' sports activities should be organically integrated with mass activities, and advocated developing people's sports behavior ability in sports teaching, attaching importance to the cultivation of students' sports attitude, making use of traditional sports means and non-traditional sports means to enrich and diversify the activities and create a good sports atmosphere for female college students. Kwon & Armstrong (2004) believed that only by providing students with high-quality teaching quality can they improve their sports skills and self-confidence. Noormohammadpour, et al. (2016) believed that only by improving students' physical fitness and sense of responsibility related to health and making them enjoy the process of physical exercise can they achieve the purpose of cultivating students' awareness of physical exercise and forming lifelong physical education. According to crust, et al. (2012), refining the level of students, dividing students into different levels of sports, targeted teaching, and cultivating students' interest in sports can have a positive impact on students' participation in sports activities. From the perspective of social sports consciousness and law, Wei (2011) & Smith (1990) pointed out that "sports undertakings are public welfare undertakings and sports venues are non operational entities", which is the main sports resource management system in developed countries. Tang & Wang (2010) believed that the purpose of investment in the construction of stadiums and gymnasiums, whether government, society or individuals, should be non-profit, in order to meet the needs of people's physical exercise and make sure that such awareness and legal provisions do not allow investors to build venues free of charge, and investors will get some other preferential policies from the government, such as tax relief, preferential transfer of land use rights, etc. In the United States, many individuals and enterprises are willing to engage in social welfare undertakings, because they can not only enjoy the government's tax cuts for them, but also get a good reputation, so as to improve their social status. Therefore, at the legal and policy level, the United States has greatly encouraged people to invest in social public welfare undertakings, and sports hardware will also receive their public welfare investment (Houlihan, 2002).

3.0 Theoretical framework

In this paper, the influencing factors of college women's physical exercise are mainly analyzed from two aspects of sports consciousness and sports behavior.

 

3.1 Sports consciousness

 

Sports consciousness is a part of sports culture. From the perspective of psychology, it refers to the reflection of the objective sports phenomenon in people's mind, and the sum of people's feeling, understanding and judgment of sports activities. In the process of sports activities, people's external behavior will inevitably lead to psychological changes. In this psychological process, people will have an understanding of the sports activities they are engaged in, and gradually form sports consciousness. In other words, sports consciousness is a kind of spiritual embodiment of human brain's judgment and reflection on sports activities. People need to understand the function of sports and sports activities through the practice of sports activities, and recognize their effectiveness, in order to find the demand for sports and carry out sports behavior. It is directly affected by people's cognition, emotion and other factors.

 

3.1.1 Sports Cognition

Cognition can be said to be one of the more complex concepts in psychology. Cognition is a complex psychological activity for individuals to understand the world, and cognitive ability is one of the most important psychological abilities. Modern psychologists believe that cognition is a kind of psychological activity in which individuals accept, code, store, extract and use cognitive information in practice. The ability to complete these psychological activities is called cognitive ability. Cognitive state is the initial form of sports consciousness, that is to say, only when sports  activities are cognized first, can the complete form of sports consciousness be produced. Sports cognition is consistent with people's health goals and needs. It is based on cognition and sports experience. Due to the combination, assimilation and adaptation of various factors in the process of education, this value cognition has the trend of constantly surpassing its original thinking pattern, and constantly affects people's evaluation, selection and behavior. College women's cognition of physical exercise has made great progress, but there is still one-sided understanding of sports activities, and the understanding is still not comprehensive and thorough. The main factors influencing women's sports cognition are women's interest and attitude to participate in sports behavior.

3.1.2 sports emotion

Emotion is a kind of reflection form of people's experience of objective things, and their own activities. The emotional state is the premise of producing sports consciousness and dominates its future development trend. Sports emotion refers to people's feeling and evaluation of sports activities. Women's emotion to sports is mainly manifested in the choice of sports events, the allocation of time for participating in sports activities and so on.

This paper intends to investigate and analyze women's sports consciousness from the following three aspects: 1. Women's interest in physical exercise. The degree of women's interest in sports refers to the degree to which women like sports and . 2. Women's recognition of the importance of sports activities. 3.Women's cognition of sports function. For college women, the functions of sports include: to be healthier; to improve learning efficiency; to keep a good body shape; to be welcomed by teachers and classmates; to achieve better sports results; to avoid being criticized by parents for not exercising; to be closer to idols.

3.2 sports behavior

The concept of sports behavior is relatively broad, and all behaviors related to sports or completed through sports activities are called sports behaviors. Bu(2008) and Jiangchuan (2004) think that sports is the most basic form of sports behavior. Guo-Hua (2006)believes that social objective factors and internal psychological factors are the inducements of a person's sports behavior.

This paper intends to investigate and analyze women's sports behavior from the following three aspects 1. Sports events; 2. Frequency of physical exercise; 3. Factors affecting sports behavior, mainly from external objective factors and internal psychological factors, including: support of people around, lack of sports facilities, lack of guidance, learning pressure, physical discomfort, boring teaching environment, low self-esteem of sports skills, do not want people to find themselves wearing Sportswear.

4.0 Research purpose

People's healthy development is one of the important material bases of national development, social progress and personal happiness, and also an important symbol and potential power of social progress recognized by the world. But as people's lifestyles have changed dramatically, which make people's physical activity decrease, mental activity increase, life rhythm accelerate, psychological pressure increase, and cause increasingly serious threat to human health. Therefore, the times call for health, people need health. With the deepening of China's higher education reform, more and more women are able to enter the university campus and receive higher education. They have the same opportunities to study and compete with men. Female college students have become a noticeable group among the female groups in today's Chinese society, and they are also a large group participating in the "national fitness" in China. Their sports awareness and behavior in school will have a significant impact on whether they can continue to adhere to physical exercise after graduation and become a real lifelong sportsman. In addition to the common characteristics of general young college students, female college students in adolescence have their unique physiological, psychological characteristics, ideological and moral characteristics as a special group.

This paper believes that studying the current situation of college women's sports activities, understanding the characteristics and laws of their sports behaviors, and summarizing the existing problems will help to better meet the physical needs of female college students, and lay a good foundation for them to move towards the society.

5.0 Methodology

5.1 Research object

The subjects of the study are 334 Female Freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors in Wuhan University of Hubei Province. Their grade distribution is as follows: freshmen accounted for 21.64%, sophomore accounted for 14.18%, junior accounted for 42.54%, senior accounted for 21.64%.

Figure 1

5.2 Research method

5.2.1  Questionnaire survey

5.2.1.1 Questionnaire design

 

Through consulting a large number of literature, determine the content of the questionnaire. By asking for the opinions of the department of physical education and physical education teachers of colleges and universities, and some college women, the original questionnaire was revised. The second draft of the formal questionnaire was formed by consulting the experts' opinions and making further modifications. The contents of the questionnaire include the grade, times, time, intensity, sports values, sports attitude, motivation, favorite sports items, influencing factors of participating in physical exercises, etc.

 

5.2.1.2 Form of questionnaire distribution

 

First of all, 50 copies of the questionnaire were forwarded in the form of friend circle among college women. The questionnaire of the trial survey will be recycled, and the final questionnaire will be formed according to the suggestions of experts and the results of the questionnaire. 300 copies of the questionnaire will be forwarded among college women by using the circle of friends.

5.2.1.3 Questionnaire analysis tools

Mathematical statistics

 

I will use SPSS mathematical statistics software to carry out regression analysis on the variables of the questionnaire survey, and use tables and charts to directly, vividly and concisely reflect the basic mathematical characteristics of the data.

6.0 Results

6.1 Sports consciousness

6.1.1 sports preference

item

 

 

 

 

frequency

Percentage

Do you like sports activities?

Very disagree

43.00

12.87%

 disagree

73.00

21.64%

neither supports nor oppose

38.00

11.19%

agree

70.00

20.90%

Very agree

110.00

33.58%

total

334.00

100.00%

 

Table 1

It can be seen from table 1 that 12.87% of college students think "very disagree", 21.64% think  "disagree",11.19%think "never supports nor oppose", 20.9% think "agree" and 33.58% think "very agree".

6.1.2 Recognition of the importance of sports activities

 

item

 

frequency

Percentage(%)

Do you think sports are important

Very unimportant

5

1.49

unimportant

5

1.49

neither supports nor oppose

47

13.43

important

197

59.7

Very important

80

23.88

 

total

334

100

 

Table 2

It can be seen from table 2 that the female respondents attach great importance to sports participation, with “very important” accounting for 1.49%, “unimportant” for 1.49%, “neither supports nor opposite ” for 13.43%, “important”  for 59.7% and “very important” for 23.88%.

6.1.3 Sports function

item

 

grade

 

 

freshmen

sophomore

Junior

Senior

frequency

Percentage(%)

Better health

Very disagree

33.33%

0.00%

33.33%

33.33%

8

2.24%

neither supports nor oppose

100.00%

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%

3

0.75%

agree

11.32%

20.75%

16.98%

50.94%

132

39.55%

Very agree

14.29%

23.38%

24.68%

37.66%

191

57.46%

Improve learning efficiency

Very disagree

0.00%

33.33%

33.33%

33.33%

8

2.24%

 disagree

0.00%

25.00%

0.00%)

75.00%

10

2.99%

neither supports nor oppose

20.75%

49.06%

11.32%

18.87%

132

39.55%

agree

29.17%

31.25%

18.75%

20.83%

120

35.82%

Very agree

15.38%

53.85%

11.54%

19.23%

65

19.40%

Keep in good body shape

Very disagree

0.00%

50.00%

50.00%

0.00%

5

1.49%

neither supports nor oppose

0.00%

0.00%

66.67%

33.33%

15

4.48%

agree

28.57%

14.29%

44.90%

12.24%

122

36.57%

Very agree

19.48%

14.29%

38.96%

27.27%

191

57.46%

Welcomed by teachers and students of the school

Very disagree

16.67%

33.33%

16.67%

33.33%

20

5.97%

 disagree

12.50%

56.25%

0.00%

31.25%

62

18.66%

neither supports nor oppose

21.74%

44.93%

11.59%

21.74%

162

48.51%

agree

31.03%

24.14%

24.14%

20.69%

67

20.15%

Very agree

14.29%

57.14%

21.43%

7.14%

23

6.72%

Can achieve better sports results

Very disagree

0.00%

50.00%

0.00%

50.00%

15

4.48%

 disagree

0.00%

0.00%

0.00%)

100.00%

40

11.94%

neither supports nor oppose

13.51%

32.43%

21.62%

32.43%

172

51.49%

agree

28.33%

48.33%

10.00%

13.33%

72

21.64%

Very agree

22.58%

45.16%

16.13%

16.13%

35

10.45%

Can avoid being criticized by parents for not exercising

Very disagree

8.33%

58.33%

0.00%

33.33%

10

2.99%

 disagree

21.43%

25.00%

14.29%

39.29%

5

1.49%

neither supports nor oppose

19.67%

49.18%

14.75%

16.39%

92

27.61%

agree

33.33%

38.10%

14.29%

14.29%

150

44.78%

Very agree

25.00%

41.67%

25.00%

8.33%

77

23.13%

The exercise behavior of the idols in the media inspired me

Very disagree

22.22%

66.67%

0.00%

11.11%

30

8.96%

 disagree

17.24%

37.93%

17.24%

27.59%

70

20.90%

neither supports nor oppose

17.65%

43.14%

17.65%

21.57%

152

45.52%

agree

30.43%

26.09%

17.39%

26.09%

53

15.67%

Very agree

30.77%

46.15%

7.69%

15.38%

30

8.96%

 

Table 3

For "better health", 2.24% thought "very disagree"; 0.75% thought "never supports nor oppose"; 39.55% thought "agree"; 57.46% thought "very agree". This means that most of the respondents think that physical exercise is beneficial to health. However, in different grades, freshmen may pay less attention to health than other senior students.

For "improve learning efficiency", the proportion of "very disagree" is 2.24%; that of "disagree" is 2.99%; that of "never supports nor opposite" is 39.55%; that of "agree" is 35.82%; that of "very agree" is 19.40%. This means that the vast majority of respondents believe that physical exercise is beneficial to improve learning efficiency. In addition, the recognition of physical exercise to improve learning efficiency in freshmen and sophomore is higher than that in Junior and Senior.

For "keep in good body shape", the proportion of "very disagree" is 1.49%; that of "disagree" is 0; that of "neither supports nor opposite" is 4.48%; that of "agree" is 36.57%; that of "very agree" is 57.46%. This means that the vast majority of respondents believe that physical exercise is beneficial to shape the body. Comparatively speaking, freshmen and sophomore have lower recognition of physical exercise in shaping body shape than Junior and Senior.

For "welcome by teachers and students of the school", the proportion of "very disagree" was 5.97%; that of "disagree" was 18.66%; that of "never supports nor opposite" was 48.51%; that of "agree" was 20.15%; that of "very agree" was 6.72%. This means that the vast majority of respondents don't think that physical exercise is meant to cater to teachers and other students. Comparatively speaking, freshmen and sophomore have higher recognition of physical exercise to welcome by teachers and other students than Junior and Senior.

For "can achieve better sports results", the proportion of "very disagree" was 4.48%; that of "disagree" was 11.94%; that of "never supports nor opposite" was 51.49%; that of "agree" was 21.64%; that of "very agree" was 10.45%. This means that the vast majority of respondents do not think that physical exercise is to get better sports performance. Comparatively speaking, freshmen and sophomore have higher recognition degree than Junior and Senior.

For "can avoid being critical by parents for not exercising", the proportion of "very disagree" is 2.99%; that of "disagree" is 1.49%; that of "never supports nor opposite" is 27.61%; that of "agree" is 44.78%; that of "very agree" is 23.13%. This means that the vast majority of respondents believe that physical exercise can avoid being criticized by their parents. Comparatively speaking, freshmen and sophomore have higher recognition of physical exercise to avoid parental criticism than Junior and Senior.

According to the "the exercise behavior of the idols in the media inspired me", 8.96% of the respondents thought "very disagree"; 20.90% believed that "disagree"; 45.52% believed that "neither supports nor opposite"; 15.67% thought "agree"; 8.96% thought "very agree". This means that the vast majority of respondents think that physical exercise is motivated by their idols. Comparatively speaking, freshmen and sophomores have higher cognition of being inspired by idols than juniors and seniors.

6.2 sports behavior

6.2.1 frequency of participation

 

 

Item

Times

Grade (%)

χ²

p

freshmen

sophomore

Junior

Senior

Total

How many times a week do you take part in sports?

0

10.79

12.28

15.79

21.69

14.9

44.43

0.008

1-2

54.62

57.89

47.37

54.83

53.73

2-5

28.48

22.81

31.58

19.24

25.37

Above 5

6.90

7.02

5.26

4.24

5.97

Total

73

143

47

71

 

p<0.05 ** p<0.01

 

Table 4

Survey statistics show that female college students exercise once or twice a week, accounting for 53.73% of the total, of which 58.62% are freshmen, 57.89% are sophomore, 47.34% are junior and 44.83% are senior.

 The second was 2-5 times, accounting for 25.37%. Among them, freshmen accounted for 28.48%, sophomore accounted for 22.81%, junior accounted for 31.58%, senior accounted for 19.24%.

In addition, the total number of physical exercise more than 5 times accounted for 5.97%,  among them, freshmen accounted for 6.90%, sophomore accounted for 7.02%, junior accounted for 15.79%, senior accounted for 4.24%.

According to the total number of physical exercise in 0 times accounted for 14.9%, among them, freshmen accounted for 10.79%, sophomore accounted for 12.28%, junior accounted for 5.26%, senior accounted for 21.69%.

From the above data, most of the respondents' physical exercise frequency is between 1-2 times and 2-5 times.

From the level of grade, most of the groups with 0 times of exercise concentrated in senior, and the group with more than 5 times of exercise concentrated in freshmen, sophomore and junior , and senior was the least.

6.2.2 sports events

 

Sports item

grade %)

 

freshmen

sophomore

Junior

Senior

Total

□Table tennis

50

33.33

10

6.67

19.40

□Tennis

63.06

12.5

11.11

13.33

11.19

□Basketball

50

20.83

22.22

6.67

17.91

□Aerobics

0

8.33

11.11

26.67

14.93

□badminton

0

4.17

66.67

26.67

53.73

□Volleyball

0

75

0

6.67

38.81

□Martial arts

50

0

50

0

5.97

□Yoga

50

8.33

33.33

26.67

24.63

□Billiards

0

0

11.11

26.67

8.21

□Sports dance

50

0

0

0

1.49

□Round stone

0

12.5

44.44

53.33

0.75

□Golf

0

4.17

0

0

2.24

□Archery

0

4.17

22.22

33.33

15.67

□Others

50

0

0

6.67

29.10

Table 5

Table tennis accounted for 19.40%. Among them, freshmen (50%) and sophomore (33.33%) liked table tennis more than junior (10%) and senior (6.67%).

Tennis accounted for 11.19%. Among them, freshmen (63.06%) liked tennis more than other grades.

Basketball accounted for 17.91%. Among them, freshmen (50%) liked tennis more than other grades.

Aerobics accounted for 14.93%,among them, senior (26.67) liked aerobics more than other grades.

Badmenton accounted for 53.73%, Junior (66.67%) liked badminton more than other grades.

Volleyball accounted for 17.91%, Sophomore (75%) liked volleyball more than other grades.

Martial arts accounted for 5.97%. Among them, freshmen (50%) and senior (50%) liked martial arts more than other grades.

Yoga accounted for 24.63%. Among them, freshmen (50%) liked Yoga more than other grades.

Billiards accounted for 8.21%, Senior (26.67%) liked billiards more than other grades.

Sports dance accounted for 1.49%. Among them, freshmen (50%) liked sports dance more than other grades.

Round stone accounted for 0.75%, Junior (44.44%) and senior (53.33%). I like sports dance more than other grades.

Golf accounted for 2.24%, Junior (4.17%) liked golf more than other grades.

Archery accounted for 15.67, Junior (4.17%) liked golf more than other grades.

It can be seen from table 5 that the main contents of female college students' activities are some popular and common sports, mainly badminton (53.73%) and volleyball (38.81%), while other activities are relatively less.

6.2.3 duration of extracurricular sports activities

item

 

grade (%)

freshmen

sophomore

Junior

Senior

total

How much time do you exercise each time?

Below 10 minute

10.34

12.28

0.00

3.45

8.21

10-30 minute

44.83

52.63

21.05

31.03

41.79

30 minute-60 minute

24.14

29.82

47.37

51.72

35.82

Above 60 minute

20.69

5.26

31.58

13.79

14.18

 

Total

73

143

47

71

 

 

Table 6

The proportion of female college students who exercise for 31-60 minutes and 10-30 minutes each time is higher than that of other exercise time. Among them, 35.82% of them exercise for 31-60 minutes and 41.79% for 10-30 minutes. The lowest proportion of activity time less than 10 minutes was 8.21%.

From the comparison of grades, when the exercise time is less than 10 minutes, the proportion of grade one is 10.34, that of grade two is 12.38%, and that of grade three is 0, but that of senior is 3.45%. When the exercise time was more than 60 minutes, grade one accounted for 20.69%, while grade two accounted for 5.26%, grade three increased to 31.58%, but grade four dropped to 13.79%. On the whole, this shows that most of the female students' exercise time is extended from less than 30 minutes to about one hour with the growth of grade, and it also reflects the growth of female college students' awareness of effective exercise behavior.

6.2.4 influencing factors of sports behavior

Cross  analysis results

item

 

grade

total

freshmen

sophomore

Junior

My family support me in sports

Very disagree

25.00%

25.00%

25.00%

2.99%

disagree

33.33%

15.33%

33.33%

2.24%

neither supports nor oppose

23.53%

23.53%

11.76%

12.69%

agree

26.67%

40.00%

15.56%

33.58%

Very agree

16.92%

49.23%

13.85%

48.51%

My friends support me in sports

Very disagree

0.00%

0.00%

100.00%

0.75%

disagree

25.00%

50.00%

0.00%

2.99%

neither supports nor oppose

25.00%

31.25%

12.50%

11.94%

agree

15.38%

49.23%

13.85%

48.51%

Very agree

27.08%

37.50%

16.67%

35.82%

There are too few sports facilities in the school

Very disagree

10.00%

45.00%

20.00%

14.93%

disagree

17.14%

51.43%

17.14%

26.12%

neither supports nor oppose

24.53%

41.51%

11.32%

39.55%

agree

35.00%

30.00%

15.00%

14.93%

Very agree

16.67%

33.33%

0.00%

4.48%

No guidance

Very disagree

15.38%

46.15%

23.08%

9.70%

disagree

10.71%

53.57%

21.43%

20.90%

neither supports nor oppose

26.92%

44.23%

9.62%

38.81%

agree

26.47%

29.41%

11.76%

25.37%

Very agree

14.29%

42.86%

14.29%

5.22%

Too much study pressure, too much homework, no time and energy to exercise

Very disagree

9.09%

54.55%

18.18%

8.21%

disagree

18.75%

43.75%

25.00%

11.94%

neither supports nor oppose

18.37%

55.10%

12.24%

36.57%

agree

25.00%

30.00%

35.00%

29.85%

Very agree

22.22%

33.33%

27.78%

13.43%

My physical fitness is not suitable for sports

Very disagree

5.88%

47.06%

23.53%

12.69%

disagree

25.00%

47.50%

12.50%

29.85%

neither supports nor oppose

27.08%

35.42%

14.58%

35.82%

agree

18.18%

13.64%

40.91%

16.42%

Very agree

14.29%

27.00%

37.14%

5.22%

I'm not interested in the sports activities organized by the school. It's too boring

Very disagree

12.50%

37.50%

25.00%

5.97%

disagree

23.64%

40.91%

18.18%

10.42%

neither supports nor oppose

30.16%

39.68%

9.52%

47.01%

agree

17.65%

44.12%

20.59%

25.37%

Very agree

20.00%

51.43%

10.00%

11.22%

I don't like the way of teaching physical activities

Very disagree

9.09%

54.55%

18.18%

8.21%

disagree

8.33%

62.50%

16.67%

17.91%

neither supports nor oppose

27.27%

45.45%

13.64%

49.25%

agree

19.23%

11.54%

15.38%

19.40%

Very agree

42.86%

32.86%

10.00%

5.22%

My menstrual cycle prevents me from exercising.

Very disagree

25.00%

62.50%

0.00%

5.97%

disagree

6.25%

68.75%

12.50%

11.94%

neither supports nor oppose

19.67%

42.62%

19.67%

45.52%

agree

39.39%

30.30%

12.12%

24.63%

Very agree

6.25%

31.25%

6.25%

11.94%

I don't like it when people see me in sportswear

Very disagree

16.22%

43.24%

18.92%

27.61%

disagree

16.67%

42.86%

19.05%

31.34%

neither supports nor oppose

32.61%

43.48%

6.52%

34.33%

agree

16.67%

16.67%

16.67%

5.97%

Very agree

0.00%

66.67%

0.00%

11.94%

I don't want to be found out that I'm not good at sports

Very disagree

12.50%

53.13%

25.00%

23.88%

disagree

16.22%

40.54%

13.51%

27.61%

neither supports nor oppose

30.00%

40.00%

12.50%

29.85%

agree

46.67%

33.33%

0.00%

11.19%

Very agree

0.00%

40.00%

10.00%

7.46%

 

Table 7

In terms of each individual option,

Most people think that their families support them to take part in physical exercise, and there is not much difference between different grades; Most people think that friends are very supportive of their participation in physical exercise, and there is not much difference between grades;Most people think that the school sports infrastructure is relatively small, and there is not much difference between grades; In terms of lack of guidance, only 30.6% of them think they have guidance. And there was a fluctuation in each grade, 15.38% for freshmen, 46.15% for sophomores, 23.08% for juniors and 15.38% for seniors; In terms of academic pressure, only 21.15% of the respondents thought that there was not too much academic pressure, and the distribution of academic pressure among different grades was different. Female college students of sophomores and juniors thought that the academic burden was heavier, accounting for 33.33% and 27.78% respectively, while the proportion of freshmen and seniors was less, accounting for 22.22% and 16.67% respectively; In terms of fitness, only 21% of the people agree that their physical condition is not suitable for exercise, and the difference of female college students of different grades is not very obvious; In terms of the degree of boredom with sports, only 15% of people do not support this view. There was no significant difference among different grades; In terms of teaching methods, only 26% of the people like the teaching methods of the school. There was no significant difference among different grades; From the influence of menstrual cycle, only 17.9% thought that menstruation would not affect exercise; From the perspective of the impact of sportswear, only 17.91% of people think that they do not like to be seen wearing sportswear, so they are not willing to participate in sports activities;From the perspective of influencing factors of poor motor skills, only 18.65% agreed.

 

7.0 Discussion

7.0 Discussion

 

7.1 sports awareness

 

From the research results, the respondents of college students pay more attention to sports. Table 1 shows that 33.58% of women like physical exercise very much, and 20.09% of participants like physical exercise; as can be seen from table 2, 59.7% of female college participants think that physical exercise is very important, and 23.88% of female college participants think that physical exercise is very important. This shows that physical exercise has become a recognized way for college girls to improve their health, which proves that their sports awareness has been greatly improved.

From the perspective of sports function table 3, the differences between different grades are more obvious.For "keep in good body shape", junior thought that “very agreeaccounted for 38.96%; senior thought that“very agreeaccounted for 27.27%; freshmen thought that “very agree accounted for 19.48%; sophomore thought that “very agree accounted for 14.29%. But in terms of “ Can achieve better sports results”: Junior thinks “very agreeaccounts for 16.13%; senior thinks “very agree accounts for 16.13%; freshmen thinks that “very agree accounts for 22.58%; sophomore thinks that “very agree accounts for 45.16%. In terms of avoiding being scolded by parents, junior thought that “very agree accounted for 25.00%; senior thought that “very agree accounted for 8.33%; freshmen thought that “very agree accounted for 25.00%; sophomore thought that “very agree accounted for 41.67%. In terms of welcome by teachers and students of the school, junior thought that “very agree accounted for 21.43%; senior thought that “very agree accounted for 7.14%; freshmen thought that “very agree accounted for 14.29%; sophomore thought that “very agree accounted for 57.14%. Senior and junior girls are more mature in body and psychology, and their self-consciousness is also stronger. The more important thing to do physical exercise is to start from their own needs, so they pay more attention to the benefits of physical training on the shaping of body. Hong-Bo (2010). thinks that the sports demand structure of senior female college students has undergone significant changes compared with the past, and has its obvious characteristics, that is, diversity, sociality and subjectivity. The obvious "sociality" feature shows that college students have realized that sports is not only a means of physical exercise, but also an important tool for shaping self-image, expanding communication and adapting to the future society. Therefore, from the table, we can see that the performance difference between high and low grade girls is very obvious. Junior female college students have not been exposed to more society, so they are more likely to be forced to make choices, such as in order to get better academic performance, in order not to be criticized by their parents. Therefore, for different needs of the crowd, the school in the development of physical education curriculum, need to be targeted design.

7.2 sports behavior

 

According to the weekly participation frequency table 4, the differences among different grades are also very obvious. With the growth of grades, the frequency of female college students' exercise gradually decreases. The frequency of exercise per week is more than five times, from 6.90% in grade one to 4.24% in grade four. Those who do not participate in physical exercise increase from 10.79% in grade one to 21.69% in grade four. From table 4, it can be seen that P value < 0.05, which means that the significant difference of different grades in participation is obvious. It shows that the female college students who take part in physical exercises have a decreasing trend with the increase of age. The author thinks that the higher the grade of female college students, the less they participate in extracurricular physical exercise,  they are more willing to limit their time in the communication circle with their classmates and friends who have good relations with them, and they are facing more and more learning pressure, such as employment, postgraduate entrance examination, social activities, etc. Excessive pressure makes female college students, especially senior female students, obviously weaken their sports participation behavior.

In Table 5, there is no significant difference in the choice of sports events among female students of different grades, mainly badminton (53.73%) and volleyball (38.81%). To some extent, it reflects the general tendency of female college students to choose sports after school. In addition, from the perspective of the classification of sports activities, some of the items they chose were not opened in most of the physical education courses in China's colleges and universities, including the reasons for school facilities and teachers' teaching organization. Ball games are easier to organize in the teaching process, Therefore, basketball and volleyball are often used by teachers. From primary school to university, these projects have contact, but few girls use these methods to do physical exercise in their spare time. Even if they like basketball or volleyball, they will naturally choose to give up due to the lack of technical level and low physical quality.

From the perspective of the continuous schedule 6 of extracurricular sports activities, it shows that most of the girls exercise time from less than 30 minutes to about one hour with the growth of grade, which reflects that students' understanding of effective exercise behavior has increased. But there will be fluctuations between grade two and grade four. This is because in China, many sophomores begin to get familiar with the surrounding environment and have no passion for new enrollment. Dai (2019) believes that sophomores are in the transitional period of university stage, and some Chinese sophomores have some problems, such as lack of goals, confusion, frequent contradictions and unbalanced relations. At this stage, they don't have to face the distress of looking for a job, taking the postgraduate entrance examination, or even marriage. They have a certain degree of relaxation on their own image and all aspects, and their interest in physical exercise is also reduced. The fourth grade students realize that increasing exercise time is beneficial to their health, but finding a job, falling in love, taking the postgraduate entrance examination and so on distract their energy, so there will be insufficient exercise time.

From the influencing factors of sports behavior table 7, in terms of my family support me in sports, 48.51% of them hold the opinion of very agree, 33.58% of them hold the opinion of agree, they think that the support of family is the driving force to promote their sports; in terms of my friends support me in sports, 48.51% of them hold the opinion of very agree, 35.82% of them hold the opinion of agree. They think that the support of friends is the driving force to promote their sports. That means,the support of family and friends can stimulate female college students' exercise behavior. According to the model of "internal driving decision" put forward by American psychology expert Dessy in the last century, combined with the physiological characteristics of female college students and the characteristics of sports events, it is concluded that accompanying exercise is the objective physiological requirement of female college students(Yoshida & Fukuda, 2009). From the subjective point of view, female college students hope to get the recognition of the surrounding social circle through exercise, which is not only a kind of cultural identity, but also the need of self-organization sense of belonging. Therefore, when designing physical education curriculum, schools need to use group training to help women achieve the goal of exercise.

Secondly, from the table7, we can also see that college girls are dissatisfied with the school's sports facilities, teaching methods and activity types. For “No guidance” 25.37% hold the opinion of very agree, 5.22% of them hold the opinion of agree, 38.81% of them hold the opinion of neither supports nor oppose ; for I'm not interested in the sports activities organized by the school. It's too boring25.37% hold the opinion of very agree, 11.22% of them hold the opinion of agree, 47.01% of them hold the opinion of neither supports nor oppose ; for I don't like the way of teaching physical activities19.40% hold the opinion of very agree, 5.22% of them hold the opinion of agree, 49.25% of them hold the opinion of neither supports nor oppose; forThere are too few sports facilities in the school”14.93% hold the opinion of very agree, 4.48% of them hold the opinion of agree, 39.55% of them hold the opinion of neither supports nor oppose.

Sports venues and facilities are one of the important guarantee conditions for the development of after-school sports activities, and the lack of sports venues and equipment is a common problem in China's colleges and universities(Dept, 2005). In recent years, universities have repeatedly "expanded enrollment", and the contradiction between the supply and demand of sports venues and equipment is more prominent, and the number of college students is increasing day by day, which is limited by the national education investment, school sports investment and the campus area of the school, this situation seriously restricts the enthusiasm of college students to participate in extracurricular sports activities(Jing & Ming, 2008).

 

In addition, some items stipulated in the PE Syllabus of primary schools, middle schools and universities have been repeatedly opened in China.The design of physical education curriculum in schools is not differentiated according to the level of grade. As a result, some students are not interested in the contents they have learned, and the schools that are interested in the contents have not been opened, which has affected the enthusiasm of students to participate in sports. In addition, some schools teach what the assessment content is. The teaching content is monotonous and boring, and some students are tired of learning. The phenomenon that the female college students like sports but don't like physical education is common. In addition, many teachers can't get rid of the traditional "perfusion" teaching method and can't give full play to students' subjective initiative(Bin, et al. 2007). Female college students are more inert than male students to a certain extent. It is also difficult to mobilize their subjective initiative, which leads to girls' unwillingness to participate in sports activities(Yan,Huijuan & Zhaoyang, 2016).

8.0 conclusions and recommendations

From the investigation of the present situation of female college students' physical exercise, the results show that the initiative of female college students to participate in extracurricular sports activities shows a downward trend with the growth of their age. Their participation in sports activities is relatively simple, mainly in badminton, volleyball and other competitive projects, which is more consistent with the psychological characteristics of women. Secondly, some senior girls have a higher understanding of the importance of participating in extracurricular sports activities, but their enthusiasm to participate in fitness has decreased. In addition to people's subjective desire, sports behavior also needs realistic conditions. Although they have sports demand, motivation, interest and correct sports attitude, they have not been put into action. Finally, the factors of facilities, physical education and the organization and management of extracurricular sports activities are the objective factors affecting female college students' participation in extracurricular sports activities.

The following suggestions are put forward in this paper

College physical education should set up the guiding ideology of sports technology teaching. In the teaching process, we should strengthen the training of female college students' sports technology. Sports technology teaching can not only increase the reserve of operational knowledge, enhance the ability of self-exercise, but also be an effective way to help female students to keep fit.

Strengthen the theoretical knowledge of physical education and health education, and cultivate female college students' lifelong sports consciousness. Strengthening the theoretical education of physical education can not only make students understand the basic structure of the human body and the functions of various parts, but also make them understand the influence of physical exercise on them, so that they can gradually establish the idea that participating in sports activities is not only in school, but also throughout one's life.

It is suggested that colleges and universities should arrange physical education teaching for four consecutive years, set up general courses in the first grade to promote the all-round development of female college students' physical quality. In the second year, optional courses should be set up to cultivate students' hobbies and interests in some sports items. In the third and fourth grades, special skills should be improved so as to gradually improve the sports quality of female college students.

The physical education syllabus and teaching content in Colleges and universities should be divided into two systems, namely, men and women, so as to study sports and teaching methods suitable for female students' physiological and psychological characteristics. The teaching content can select the fashionable sports items appropriately, arouse the students' direct interest in learning, so as to achieve the purpose of cultivating indirect interest.

The government should pay attention to the role of mass media in the dissemination of sports information, make full use of campus radio, billboards and other media, strengthen the propaganda of correct fitness concept and lifelong fitness concept, and widely promote scientific fitness knowledge, fitness means and fitness methods.

Strengthen the construction of sports facilities in Colleges and universities to meet the exercise needs of female college students.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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