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A Discussion of Lessons Learned from Indigenous People

2020-05-21 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

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下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- A Discussion of Lessons Learned from Indigenous People,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是在殖民者到来之前,不同文化、不同种族的土著人民就生活在美国的土地上。现在,大约有12000名霍皮人居住在亚利桑那州1000平方英里的印第安保护区。有必要对长期居住在这片土地上的霍皮人进行考察。本文探讨了从土著人民,特别是西部普韦布洛斯的霍皮人身上汲取的经验教训。霍皮善于从经济活动、衣着和建筑等方面来应对自然,这是工业时代人们值得学习的。

A Discussion of Lessons Learned from Indigenous People

Before the colonists came, the indigenous people of different cultures and different races have lived on the American land. Now, there are about 12,000 Hopi people who live in the 1,000-square-mile Indian Reserve in Arizona. It is necessary to examine Hopi people who exist and inhabit this land for so long period of time. In this article, it is have a discussion of lessons learned from indigenous people, especially Hopi of Western pueblos.

 

Hopi is good at dealing with nature in term of economical activities, clothes and building, which is worth learning for people in the industrial age. They are the native people that are so closely connected with a specific natural landscape(Vasquez, 79). Hopi people in the matriarchal society are mainly devoted to farming and animal husbandry, and thus worship all things spiritual totem faith related to the nature. Also, the tribes every year to hold a variety of totem worship religious ritual. The Hopi people always regard the land as sacred, as agriculture is a very important part of their culture in their traditional subsistence economy. The Hopi is good at dealing with the land, which is the source of their food as the main crops are maize, and also grow all kinds of beans, squash, melon and other vegetables, and fruit. They are regarded as the best dry farmers in the world(Bennett, and Whiteford, 24).  In addition, their architecture and clothing also embodies the concept of harmony with nature. Previously, their houses were built around central plazas, semisubterranean ceremonial chambers (kivas).  A lot of them was living in a typical Pueblo building built by the stones and standing on top of the mountain, and then they gathered into many independent villages and towns. As their villages were built with tall, and flat rocks, and a lot of natural materials, they were well integrated into the nature. Indians costumes have the characteristics of natural integration with the unique hawk feathers as headdress, which is indeed a major feature of the Indian costumes. Indian dress is very simple, and some even do not wear clothes. This Indian clothing styles, decorations, and material are full of natural and simple characteristics.

 

In terms of social organization, Hopi are also very harmonious in family, and full of respect for the ancestors and heritage. Hopi's English full name is Hopitu-shinumu, which means "peaceful people". In addition, Hopi are very tolerant since its forming at the beginning at it has diverse clan origins, not homogeneous. They are peaceful people living a righteous way(Bennett, and Whiteford, 25). Also, two distinguishing features of the Pueblo culture are long-term occupation of the region, and permanent villages. They have been living on the land since their ancestor. Those villages of them are one of the oldest communities lived by people in America(Bennett, and Whiteford, 24). They The people of Hopi are peace-loving and monogamous. In the economical activities, there is clear division of labor: men are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry, housing construction, various ceremonies; women are making deerskin shoes, textile clothes and blankets. In addition to daily chores, women also make baskets, pottery, watermarks, and assist in vegetable and architectural work. It is a very peaceful and ordered family life. Some of the rituals evolved down to become some very unique festivals, which are still observed today such as Soyal festival. Most of the 10,000 Hopi still observed much of their ancient culture(Vasquez, 79). This respect for tradition and stable family life can set an example for family, kinship, and ceremonial organization for modern Americans.

 

At last, Hopi has an ancient, wise and mysterious culture with a respect and awe of nature. Its ancestors handed down many prophecies about human origin, history and future. Most of them did not use words, but it passed from generation to generation by word of mouth. However, in the vicinity of Oraibi, Arizona, there is a stone with the carved contents to express the ancient prophecy made by Hopi tribe of thousands of years of history. The time order is from left to right, and the horizontal direction represents the time line in millennium. The first is the beginning of this prophecy. Each circle refers to the period of life and renewal. The left side of the small circle refers to perish of human beings at the beginning of this civilization, and also refers to the human at this time will decide which way to go, either the path of empirical science or the spirit of the road. The four villains above a road represent the past three worlds and the current world. It is surprising that some of the prophecies are right. Another implication made by Hopi now is that it shows that mankind will be under the temptation of civilization of white people on the surface and take the path of white people. The following two circles on the line symbolize two world wars. The third thick line between the two lines represents the last chance of mankind returning to nature before the twists and turns of science and technology. If people choose the material road, the road of life will be tortuous and even destroyed. And if they choose the spirit of the road, mankind will move towards peace and harmony. Thus,  Hopi  formed a habit of living a life of parsimony(59). This is to some degree in consistent with the law of human development. If human beings only focus on industrial production and nuclear weapons to deter others, there will be a high risk of doom caused by global warming or risky use of weapons. This inspire the awe of of Hopi culture and make people to to decide which way to go.

 

To sum up, Hopi as an ancient Indian tribe is recognized for its respect and awe of nature, a harmonious family life, full of respect for the ancestors and heritage, ancient, wise and mysterious culture. Thus, Hopi as one tribe of the Indians which are still living in Arizona of the United States can set an example for modern Americans.

 

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