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Explain North Korea's determination to develop nuclear weapons

2020-05-15 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文


下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Explain North Korea's determination to develop nuclear weapons,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了朝鲜发展核武器的问题。朝鲜半岛的核问题是一个历史问题,可以追溯到1957年美国政府部署战术核武器的时候。因此,朝鲜发展核武器的决心,不仅是朝鲜半岛地区的历史问题,也是中国、美国、日本和俄罗斯的历史问题。本文将分为三个部分来说明朝鲜两次核电以及这六个国家在这两次危机中所扮演的角色。马上进入文章一起来看看吧

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Introduction

The nuclear problem in Korean Peninsula is a historical problem that can step back to 1957 when the U.S. Government deployed tactical nuclear weapons. The determination of North Korea to develop nuclear weapons, as a result, is a historical problem in not only Korean Peninsula area but also the among China, the U.S.,Japan and Russia. The essay will be divided into three parts to explain the two times of Nuclear power in North Korea and the rolls of these six counties play during the two conjunctures.

The first Nuclear Issue in North Korea

To explain the root of the study of the Nuclear Issue, the essay needs discuss the history traced back to post-war disposal of the Korean War. This war from the legal point of view, has not yet officially ended.

On July 27, 1953, with the highest commander of the Korean People's Army and the commander of the Chinese People's Volunteers as the party, with the commander-in-chief of the United Nations as the other party, both sides signed the "Korean Armistice Agreement" and the "temporary supplement on the armistice agreement protocol". But it is only a paper armistice agreement, rather than a peace treaty. That is, the relevant countries although in the truce, but still in a state of war. This can be regarded as one of the important causes of the stability of the Korean Peninsula for a long time.

North Korea has natural advantage of nuclear weapons development, that is its rich uranium mine. Take the two mines near Pyongyang, for example, are middle-size uranium mines. The two uranium mines are in the protection of the army that can't be overran only if there is a general war in North Korea.

In 1956, the government of North Korea cooperated with the former Soviet Union that concluded a plan called Nuclear Energy Research Cooperation Plan, and the country sent dozens of scientists each year to "Dubna Nuclear Research Center" in Moscow for studying nuclear knowledge. In the meantime, the government also cooperated with Eastern European countries for technology exchanges. In 1920, North Korea established a nuclear energy research institute to build reactors in Yongbyon area which is 90 kilometer north of Pyongyang. The institute was for nuclear energy research and development.

North Korea joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1974 and subsequently joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1985. At the beginning of the 1980s, the country began its construction of a second reactor in Yongbyon. The 50-megawatt research reactor began operating in 1987 with the capability to produce about 700 kilograms of plutonium per year, which means it has potential to produce one or two nuclear weapons each year.

In 1991, the North Korea offered to denuclearize the Korean Peninsula, because South Korea was also ready to develop nuclear weapons as well as the United States in South Korea deployed tactical nuclear weapons. On December 31, 1991, the DPRK signed the Agreement on the Denuclearization of the Peninsula. In January 1992, the "safeguards agreement" was signed, and the DPRK accepted the IAEA's oversight and accepted its verification for 6 times from May 1992 to February 1993.

In the Untied States, on June 16, 1994, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution urging Clinton to take action to prepare the U.S. Military for "deterrence and repelling the Korean attack if necessary". However after the assessment, the U.S recognized that military action against DPRK would lead to North Korea's attack on the South Korea, which will result in a large number of innocent civilian’s casualties in both countries. During the time when the US was discussing about the military programs, the former US president Carter went to Pyongyang to visit and meet with Kim Zecheng, the leader of North Korea that time. The visiting brought back the information that North Korea was willing to negotiate with the United States. After that, the Clinton administration changed its attitude and chose the path of negotiations.

Since June 1993, North Korea and the US government had held three high-level talks in New York. The two sides signed the Framework Agreement on Solving the North Korean Nuclear Issue. The main contents include: North Korea agreed to abandon the construction process in the two graphite reactor. As compensation, the United States would organize and lead an international consortium to provide North Korea two $ 4 billion worth of light water reactors with capability of 1000 megawatts each as early as possible. In order to solve the energy problem in the reactor replacement process, the US would provide 500,000 tons of heavy oil to North Korea per year. This is the end of the first North Korean Issue.

The Second Nuclear Issue of North Korea

The second nuclear issue of North Korea began in 2003. However, before 2003, some evidence shows that the nuclear issue might be totally solved. At the end of the Clinton administration, there seemed to be some possibility that the relationship between DPRK and the US would become normal. On October 9, 2000 the first vice chairman of the National Defense Commission of North Korea visited the United States as Special Envoy of Kim Jong il. On 23 October, US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright held a two-day historic visit to North Korea and met with Kim Jong il. During this visit, Albright conveyed President. Clinton's vision of improving the relationship between the two countries. At the same time they discussed about North Korea's nuclear issue as well as the removal of the list from the "fear list". They also talked about the possibility of arranging Clinton's visit to the DPRK. But because of the president cycle in the US that time, the Clinton administration did not have the time and the energy to achieve the visit, which might be a good chance to solve the nuclear issue from the root.

In the State of the Union address in January 2002, President George W. Bush listed North Korea as an "axis of evil". In October 2002, the US intelligence agency claimed to have found North Korea's secret nuclear program and had evidence of North Korea's technology and equipment procurement in the international market. The evidence of North Korea's secret nuclear deal with Pakistan was exposed. The news was admitted by the Vice-Minister of North Korea.

This incident caused the United States and North Korea shocked. It seems that North Korea. While claiming to abandon the development of nuclear weapons. But also secretly research the development of uranium as raw material of nuclear weapons. From the US point of view, North Korea had renounced the agreement so they announced the end of bilateral negotiations. However in the North Korea's view, the US did not fulfill all the commitments in the framework agreement. The rupture of this relationship directly triggered the second nuclear issue.

In December 2002, under the auspices of the US, the Spanish Navy intercepted the North Korean cargo ship with a "Scud" missile in the Yemeni off the coast. In the same year on November 14, the US-led Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) decided to stop sending oil to North Korea. North Korea believes that the US suspension of oil supply is a breach of contract, so on December 12, the country announced that it will restart under the "US-DPRK Framework Agreement" frozen nuclear program. On 10 January 2003, North Korea declared its formal withdrawal from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

From 2003 to 2007, six counties including North Korea, the US, Russia, China, South Korea and Japan held 6 times of the six-party talks on the nuclear issue of Korean Peninsula. Although the talks signed statements including "September 19 joint statement" in 2005, Joint Statement issued on Tuesday 13 February 2007, North Korea still had 5 times nuclear test since 2006. The first test was on October 9 2006 and the 5th was on September 9, 2016.

Analysis

The main reason that North Korea keeps developing nuclear weapon, according to the two issues discussed above, is the threaten from other countries as well as the bargain chip in diplomacy. The government need use the development of nuclear weapon to maintain the rule of long-term stability, and to incite the great nationalist sentiment and patriotic need of the country. According to the history of nuclear issue and the six-party talks, the nuclear weapon development increased the bargain chip for economic and food aid to the United Nations countries dominated by the US and China.

For the other countries in the six-party talk they all have interest in the issue that cause the balance of this issue keeps unsolved. For the United State. If the North Korea nuclear weapon issue eases, the US will lose its situation in South Korea, and then the country will withdraw from East Asia. In the meantime, the other purpose in North Korea's strategy is China. The US needs to build all forces in Northeast Asia against North Korea.

For Japan, the country began to move forward a normal state after WWII since 1990s. The North Korea Nuclear issue is a good excuse for Japan. Since 2002, the DPRK missile Taupu hole series launch several times into the Sea of Japan as well as its exclusive economic zone. By these missile threat, the Japanese strengthened its domestic public opinion, modified the constitution, expanded the army and turned the SDF to self-defense forces to complete its normalization.

For South Korea, during war times, South Korea has no choice but to rely more on the US, in the interests of the US.

For Russia, Russia is located in the north of North Korea. The Korean Peninsula is Russia's stumbling block in the south. The Russia does not want to see a complete Korean Peninsula on the Mediterranean in Asia.

For China, the nuclear weapon might threaten the peace in north of China. Hence, during the six-party talk, China kept its opinion to stick to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

For the future discussion, there might be three different possibility for the nuclear weapon issue in North Korea.

The first situation is that the "sanctions-teat-and then sanctions-re-teat" cycle will be continued. North Korea is relatively closed and strong independence in some way. North Korea under the sanctions will not give up nuclear development. In fact, the country is subject to sanctions after the start of nuclear tests, as all five nuclear test are after the sanctions occurring. Hence, it is not difficult to judge that this situation will drag the North Korea nuclear issue. The escalation of the sanctions and the Korean nuclear test stimulate the cycle of repeated till the North Korean nuclear technology reaches the so called "critical point". The reason is that the determination of nuclear development is very firm for North Korea. Over the past 60 years as mentioned above, the DPRK has been trapped in external security pressure, repeatedly involved in peace talks failed to obtain security. Coupled with thee years occurred in other countries like Iraq and Syria. These all caused and strengthened its choice to hold nuclear weapons for self-protection.

The second situation is the collapse of the DPRK regime, which can't happen in short time. In recent years, North Korea's domestic agriculture and economic recovered while the people's live hood situation has improved compared to the most difficult period. Kim Jong un took over North Korea's top leaders after the basic stability of the situation. Although the DPRK's domestic policy and performance to the outside world is resentment, the hope of resolving the nuclear issue in the short-term collapse of the regime is difficult to achieve.

The third situation is the resumption of dialogue and serious negotiations, so that the nuclear issue will be alleviated or even resolved. This is also a hard method. Because over the past years, the US and North Korea has been extremely mutual distrust. The retrogression of the six-party talks has weakened the confidence of all parties.

Conclusion

From the historical point of view, the determination to develop nuclear weapons of North Korea began just after the war after 1953. With the influence from international politic environment and threaten of its neighbor countries as well as the US, North Korea developed its own nuclear weapon to keep its security. On the contrary, the nuclear issue of DPRK is a threaten to its neighbor countries and the US's interest, hence, the nuclear weapon is also an ideal bargain chip for North Korea to gain international aid and other aid in economics and energy.

 

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