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Land use management in the United States

2019-02-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Land use management in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国土地的利用管理。上世纪,美国在人口郊区化的基础上又完成了产业郊区化。新区像野草般蔓延,伸向原来的农田、牧场和森林。城市用地的无序扩张,消耗了巨量土地资源。这样的损失速度,引起了美国社会广泛关注。一些地方开始对这种不可持续的增长方式进行反思,并提出了交通导向型开发模式、划定城市增长边界、宗地再开发等土地利用策略和措施。

Land use management,土地利用管理,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The pattern of urban development has undergone a shift from sprawl to smart growth. After the second world war, along with the population explosion, economic prosperity and the popularity of cars, the "suburbanization" phenomenon appeared in American big cities, that is, the population of central cities stopped growing or even declined, while the population of small towns in the suburbs increased rapidly. In the 1980s, industrial suburbanization was completed on the basis of population suburbanization. The new area grew like a weed, spreading out into fields, pastures and forests. The sprawl of urban land consumes a huge amount of land resources. Florida lost almost 40% of its farmland in 2000 compared with 1960, and much the same in other states. This loss of speed, caused widespread concern in the United States society. Some localities began to reflect on this unsustainable growth pattern and put forward land use strategies and measures such as transport-oriented development mode, demarcation of urban growth boundary and land parcel redevelopment. These are all part of the "smart growth" policy framework. Smart growth sets out a set of principles on land use, such as encouraging the use of inefficient land in built-up areas; Protecting open space, farmland, scenic areas and ecologically sensitive areas; provide a diverse range of housing options; Encourage compact building design. States such as Oregon, Florida and Maryland have all implemented "smart growth" programs that have yielded significant results in controlling urban sprawl.

The land use goal has experienced the transformation from comprehensive development to strict protection. Due to the superior natural conditions, the American government and people once ignored the importance of protecting land resources, and the land use was extensive. Especially in the process of western development, the land resources have been seriously damaged by the predatory management. In 1934, the "black storm" shocked the world. More than 300 million tons of topsoil on more than 6 million mu of farmland in the western great plains was swept away, affecting 27 states. After this incident, the United States made a profound reflection on land development policies, and the land use thought began to shift from comprehensive development and extensive use to strict protection. The United States congress has passed a series of laws covering soil conservation, farmland conservation, watershed management, flood control, controlled logging and free grazing. In addition, a series of economic and administrative measures have been taken to strengthen the protection of agricultural land, especially arable land, including the implementation of agricultural zoning, tax incentives for agricultural land, transfer of land development rights, soil conservation and reserve plans, and fallow.

Land use planning has experienced the transformation from entity planning to comprehensive planning. Before the 20th century, the urban and land use planning in the United States mainly focused on physical elements such as material construction and spatial configuration layout, and lacked consideration of non-material elements such as economy, society and culture. In essence, it was a physical planning. For example, the Washington plan completed by lang fang in the 19th century and the Philadelphia plan completed by William paine were only blueprints of urban construction based on aesthetic design. After the 20th century, land use planning gradually integrated into social, political, economic and other contents, and began to transform from entity planning to comprehensive planning. The comprehensive plan covers economic development strategy, land allocation and distribution of various types, growth management, public service facilities, community safety, historical and cultural protection, infrastructure, community redevelopment, urban design and many other contents. In terms of effectiveness, comprehensive planning is the basic basis for various activities related to land use. The preparation of various special plans, special area plans, district regulations, land subdivision and construction projects must comply with the comprehensive planning.

The redevelopment of land experienced the transformation from urban renewal to community development. In order to solve the problem of urban decay, the United States carried out a large-scale urban renewal campaign from 1949 to 1972. About 1,100 cities have carried out 2,800 renovation projects, dismantled houses with about 600,000 units and relocated more than 2 million residents, covering more than 1.2 million mu of urban land. Objectively speaking, this movement has achieved certain benefits, and has exerted a far-reaching influence on the geographical distribution and urbanization process of American cities. However, in most places, renewal is only regarded as a simple material environment construction, without taking social and cultural factors into consideration, which brings new social contradictions, and transformed places will soon become new slums. Urban land price is too high, development is excessive, the problem such as the person land relation is not harmonious more outstanding. Some simple operations have also damaged many historical and cultural buildings. As a result, the federal housing and community development act of 1974 ended urban renewal programs and replaced them with humane community development programs. The transformation of the city has shifted from large-scale demolition and large-scale construction mainly by developers to small-scale, phased and progressive improvement organized by the community itself, focusing on the cultivation, continuation and sustainable development of the community and public participation in community affairs. In terms of urban land redevelopment, comprehensive demolition and reconstruction are no longer advocated, and the focus is mainly on the improvement and reuse of old buildings, as well as "filling in" development of inefficient construction land.

Both macro-control and micro-management are important. The United States is a decentralized, tax-sharing nation, with federal, state, and local governments independently in the ownership, use, and benefit of land. In addition to the direct management of federal public land, the federal government mainly USES legal, economic and administrative means to macro-control and guide land use behavior. The federal government has introduced a series of land use related resources and environment act. States must comply with federal law when they make their own laws and local land use plans. At the same time, the federal government also guides local governments and land users to make rational use of land through public investment, establishment of special funds and adjustment of housing policies. In terms of micro-management, local governments directly regulate land use by means of zoning regulations, land subdivision and site planning review. Zoning regulations are the main measures taken by local governments to control land use. They strictly stipulate specific indicators of land use, such as land area, use, development intensity and building volume, etc. The adjustment of land use can be described as "all-inclusive".

Protecting the public interest and protecting the private interest are both important. Private land in the United States accounts for about 58 percent of the country's total land area. As private property, land can be bought, sold and leased, but the owners and users of the land do not have absolute disposal rights. The United States government has established strict regulations on private land use. The basic principle is that private land cannot be used for "harmful public good" activities. The main means is the implementation of land use control system. State regulations vary from prohibiting backyard farming or slaughtering of animals to placing debris on the ground in front of the house to obstruct roads and waterways. In order to protect the public interest, the government attaches many control conditions to the use of private land, but it does not mean that individual land rights and interests can be infringed at will. In the United States, the protection of private land interests is as important as the preservation of public interests. Its main body is to execute strict legal system on land expropriation. The state may use the "right of expropriation" to convert private land into public use, but the purpose of expropriation must be for public use, and it must give fair compensation and go through due process.

Emphasis should be placed on both planning and implementation. The federal government of the United States does not implement centralized and unified management of land use planning, nor does it formulate nationwide land use planning. However, all kinds of land use planning are connected and complementary to each other, and play an important role in guiding and regulating land use behavior. Its land use planning can be roughly divided into comprehensive planning, special planning and growth management planning, and at the level of regional, state, sub-regional, county and town. Once the plan is approved by the parliament, it has legal effect. In the implementation of the plan, many local planning over the years, have adhered to the established planning guidelines, not because of the replacement of the government to adjust the direction. For example, San Diego made the first comprehensive plan in 1926, but now there are only two major adjustments due to the large-scale development of the city.

Administrative guidance and public participation are equally important. Local governments in the United States have established sound planning and management institutions to strengthen the guidance, management and supervision of land use. All cities with more than 50,000 people in the United States are said to have planning boards, and about 90 percent of towns with between 5,000 and 50,000 people have them. The main responsibility of the planning commission is to coordinate the relationship between the government and the public in terms of planning content and decisions and to supervise the planning bodies. The planning bureau, community development bureau and other planning agencies are mainly responsible for the preparation and implementation of planning. In order to ensure that land planning is scientific, reasonable and widely recognized, the government attaches great importance to public participation in the planning and implementation process. It can be said that public participation in planning has become a social democratic system in the United States, which is reflected in various systems of land use management. In fact, because planning matters to everyone, the American people are willing to participate and contribute ideas.

We must resolutely implement the strategy of giving priority to conservation and effectively change the way land is used. Since the reform and opening up, the total amount of land used for construction has increased rapidly and extensively. As resource and environmental constraints become increasingly severe, we must transform our growth model and achieve connoitve and intensive development.

The relationship between development and protection should be coordinated to realize the organic unification of economic, social and ecological benefits of land use. To build harmonious human-land relationship, we must take quality management and ecological management as the important tasks of land use management. We must always adhere to the strictest farmland protection system. In land restoration and development activities, ecological laws should be respected and ecological damage should be avoided.

We must always put people first and protect the people's rights and interests in land. In China, the interest adjustment and disputes of various subjects around the land have become an important factor causing social contradictions. We must accelerate reform of the land expropriation system, establish a fair and Shared mechanism for distributing the proceeds of land appreciation, and focus our reform efforts on protecting farmers' legitimate land rights and interests.

We will improve relevant legal systems and strengthen land use planning and management. There are some problems in China's land planning management, such as lack of seriousness and authority of planning, insufficient public participation in planning, loose connection with other planning, and loose restriction on planning modification. To speed up the legal construction of land planning, fundamentally solve these problems.

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