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Competitive sports in Britain

2019-01-18 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Competitive sports in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的竞技体育。英国竞技体育的快速崛起是国家和社会通力协作的结果,关键在于政府与社会之间构建了非常有效的体制机制,在这套机制里面,有精准的资金投入系统、高效的赛事运作系统、全方位的体育科研支持系统、完善的后备人才和精英教练员培养系统等,在普及与提高之间实现了无缝连接,充分调动了社会各方资源。

Competitive sports,英国竞技体育,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

Britain is not only the birthplace of modern competitive sports, but also the only country that has participated in all the summer and winter Olympic Games, successfully held three Olympic Games in the same city and won gold MEDALS in all the summer Olympic Games. Before the World War I, Britain had been playing a leading role in the development of world competitive sports. After the first world war, its performance in international competitive sports events all the way down, in the summer Olympic Games results always hovering outside the second group, even in 1996 in Atlanta Olympic Games with only one gold medal in the medal table in the 36th place, in the winter Olympics is also a number of failure. After the new Labour party led by Blair came into power in 1997, it took a series of measures to gradually reverse the sluggish development of British competitive sports. Since the Sydney Olympics in 2000, Britain has been rising up the ranks in the Olympic Games. In 2016, it jumped to the second place in the medal table in the Rio Olympic Games. In addition to the summer games, the UK has also improved rapidly in the winter Olympics, paralympics, wimbledon, football World Cup and various world class sports championships. Britain's influence and voice in the world of competitive sports are rising. Since 2000, Britain has won a total of 20 awards in the Lawrence sports awards, which is known as the "sports Oscar". Since 2012, the UK has consistently ranked in the top three in the world's sporting event country index; At present, he has served in the leading bodies of 28 of the 35 most influential international sports organizations, with a participation rate of up to 80% and a higher voice in international sports affairs. In just 20 years, Britain's competitive sports have re-emerged.

Britain in the 1990 s and no unified the central sports management, sports management is loose social autonomy model, the local autonomy is very big, at all levels of the different characteristics of the lack of communication and coordination between departments, the system failed to form a complementary resources, this was the cause of the decline in competitive sports scores an important aspect.

Blair's Labour government came to power in 1997 with sweeping reforms that were a key factor in the rise of competitive sport in Britain. First of all, in terms of the concept of sports development, the government has shifted its focus from mass sports and school sports to competitive sports. The incentive effect on both of them has increased the emphasis on competitive sports, thus changing the direction of its sports development. Secondly, it has formed the government's macro-management, the development mode of competitive sports led by the society and the operation mechanism of cross-field and multi-sector all-round cooperation. In 1997, the department of culture, media and sport of the central government was established. For the first time, sports affairs in the UK had a core body with unified leadership. DCMS only responsible for the macro policy and development strategy planning, work to a British sports council, is responsible for the implementation, and the latter with England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and wales four regional sports council and 46 countries individual sport organization, the British Olympic committee, the paralympic games, the local government, clubs, school, community, volunteers established extensive cooperative partnership, local governments and social organizations to take more responsibility on the specific work. There is no superior or subordinate administrative relationship between the organizations, which is mainly carried out by implementing contract management, plan management, performance appraisal, fund allocation and other methods centering on the strategic objectives of the state. In order to avoid the bad communication between departments caused by numerous organizations, DCMS also attaches great importance to the horizontal and horizontal integration with various organizations in terms of organizational structure, strategic planning, supervision and review, etc., so as to realize the optimal allocation of resources. Such competitive sports development mode is based on the unified leadership by the federal government, relying on and exert fully the social various industries efficiency based on an open social system engineering, and sports are both highly popular support, and a professional sport organization operation, also has a variety of elite talents of competitive sports channel, and a high level of scientific research training service as well as the strong support of the government, which effectively avoid the waste of resources caused by social organizations operate alone before, and fully arouse the enthusiasm of the social forces, achieve the complementary resource, It has become an inexhaustible driving force for the rapid rise of British competitive sports.

Another important aspect of the rapid rise of British competitive sports is the increasing capital input and precise capital input mechanism since the 1990s.

The development of competitive sports primarily funded by government grants and the national lottery revenues, the government is also very pay attention to the rate of return on capital investment, transfer means by "single point transfer", namely, according to the national sports development strategic planning, set up special plan, set up a special plan capital account, implement unit to apply for alone through bidding, bidding success through a signed agreement for financial support, there is no administrative transfer and transfer step by step. By signing agreements, a contractual relationship is formed between the implementing unit and the fund allocating unit. The former must regularly report to the latter, and the latter shall supervise and manage the consistency between the implementation and the strategic objectives of the special plan and timely adjust the fund allocation. General DCMS around an Olympic cycle the strategic planning of the budget, according to the previous Olympic Games cycle athletes would be capital inputs to most likely to get a medal of athletes and the traditional advantage project, in a fiscal period, the national governing body for the British government's major promotion project priority funding, to ensure that key project smooth implementation as planned and promotion. During the Rio Olympics cycle, the UK sport council received 543m from government grants and lottery funds, 70 per cent of which was allocated to national sports organisations for "world class performance" programmes and rewards for athletes. WCP funds are mainly invested in the training, competition and life of three types of athletes. The amount and amount of funding for athletes will be adjusted according to their performance. For athletes who have no hope of winning MEDALS, the UK will implement the principle of "no compromise" to stop or reduce the funding. APA directly rewards athletes for their sports input and living expenses. According to different standards, British sports council divides athletes into three levels: A, B and C. The rewards of different levels are shown in table 2. Some 1,300 athletes received government funding during the Rio Olympic cycle. In terms of sports, it mainly funds traditional competitive sports such as track and field, cycling, canoeing, equestrian, gymnastics, hockey, rowing, sailing, swimming and boxing. In the Rio Olympic Games, these sports have won a total of 52 MEDALS, accounting for 78% of the total MEDALS. By the end of the 2016 Rio Olympics, Britain had won a total of 700 MEDALS at the games and paralympics since the national lottery fund supported it. Other investments are in support of world-class coaching programs, reserve selection services, and the development of relationships with international sports organizations and their partners.

The British council's mission is to "world-class success with partners to guide the British sports", in order to complete the mission, the British government and society in various areas, between different departments work together to build the scientific system of competitive sports, high level athletes backup talent cultivation system, the elite coaches selection, training, evaluation system and so on the omni-directional support system of competitive sports.

First of all, the UK attaches great importance to improving the level of competitive sports through sports research. Since 2002, a British sports research institute specializing in sports research, sports medicine and engineering technology has been gradually established in the UK. During the London cycle, the academy provided services to 86 per cent of British athletes, with 27 of the 29 disciplines in its service having won at least one medal at the 2012 Olympics and paralympics. 2012 years later, the NGBS has invested in Rio DE janeiro Olympic cycle for 2 more than 600 pounds in England on the construction and service of sports institute, established a special solutions to problems of the team, actively explore how the latest scientific research achievements into the training of elite athletes, British athletes in the Olympic Games in Rio has a better performance. At present, Britain is in a leading position in sports science and sports medicine in the world, especially in the field of management, research and related theoretical development of cutting-edge sports science and sports medicine. Britain enjoys a high evaluation and good reputation in the world. Secondly, Britain has always been adhering to the concept of training well-rounded athletes and relying on the principle of all-round and multi-level training by social forces, forming an effective reserve talent development system between popularization and improvement. Its athletic talent training is divided into foundation, participation, competition and elite four stages, the early is based on school and community clubs, focus on cultivating teenagers interest in sports and basic sports skills and discover talented athletes, after two stages mainly is the process of elite athletes to grow into a high level athletes, mainly by the single club is responsible for the NGBS and region, is a professional training stage. Britain will generally 8 ~ 10 years ago from the Olympic Games set out to find and select talented athletes, in 4 ~ 6 years ago to have development potential of the athletes on the specialized training, system development, in the fourth pick has the potential to take cultivating an Olympic medal athlete, finally determine the Olympic podium level athletes, the different stages of athletes will get support from all aspects of society. Thirdly, the British government also attaches great importance to improving the experience and skills of coaches to help improve their competitive strength. After 2002, Britain gradually formed a set of perfect professional qualification certification system for coaches, which is composed of the admission system for coaches and the grading system. If you want to be a coach, you must first be recognized by the individual sports association of this project and receive strict training. Only after the training is qualified, can you take up the post. Its coaches are mainly divided into four levels: A, B, C and D, with the highest level of A and the lowest level of D. Generally, coaches with two levels of C and D can only be engaged in the most basic training as volunteers in the club, while those with two levels of A and B can carry out professional training in professional clubs and high-level teams. The British coaches' qualification certification adopts the method of level-by-level training and level-by-level assessment. The certificate is not for life, but is generally assessed every three years to re-evaluate the coaching qualification, so as to promote the continuous update of coaches' knowledge. Elite in order to improve the teaching level and the proportion of the coaches, the British council launched since 2004 elite coaches plan, and cultivate a batch of world-class elite coaches, UK and recently launched apprenticeships elite coaches plan, and have a certain coaching experience of coaches for the purpose of taking configuration tutor model for its rapid growth for world-class elite coaches.

Since its establishment, the sports council has strongly supported the UK in hosting and participating in various major international sporting events.

A portion of the lottery fund will be used annually to bid for, host and provide professional technical support for major sports events. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 55 international sports events were successfully bid for, including the 2012 London Olympic and paralympic games. After the 2012 London Olympic Games, the British sports council and launched the "gold event series" plan, will the Olympic Games, Olympic and commonwealth games sports world championships and the European championships with a high quality world tour as a key, bid plans into 4 to 2023 more than 000 pounds of sports lottery funds to support the 100 field application and hosting of large sports events, to ensure that after the British in 2012 is still holding large sports events of major countries in the world. In 2015, DCMS issued the "golden framework" event strategic plan, which provided guiding opinions on the responsibilities of each partner and specific services that can be provided during the competition bidding and execution stage. Then, the series of investment guiding documents for the golden event were issued, which clarified the specific standards, procedures and principles that can be supported for international events. On the one hand, British sports events are held to stimulate the participation of the public in sports, increase the economic income of host cities and regions, and increase the international influence. On the other hand, another key reason is the expectation to improve the competitiveness of British athletes through these events. The country also USES the performance of athletes in these events as an important criterion for selecting them for the next Olympic and paralympic games and for financial support. The UK's funding scheme, which runs on a four-year cycle, will still be adjusted annually based on how well the athletes perform at the games, to ensure that state funding supports the athletes who are most likely to win MEDALS.

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