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American vocational education act

2019-01-16 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American vocational education act,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的职业教育法。美国非常注重结合经济社会和教育发展的内在需求,制定、更新职业教育法律,以保障各级各类职业学校能够有序、规范、高效地运行。1917年,美国颁布了著名的以资助中等层次职业技术教育为主要目标的《史密斯一休斯法案》,规定联邦拨款在中学设立职业教育课程,这标志着美国职业教育体系开始形成。

vocational education,美国职业教育法,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The United States attaches great importance to formulating and updating laws on vocational education in combination with the inherent needs of economic, social and educational development, so as to ensure the orderly, standardized and efficient operation of various vocational schools. From the perspective of the origin of American vocational education law, in 1962, the United States promulgated the famous "morell act", which established the status of agriculture, machinery and other practical disciplines in higher education. The morel act in 1862, the hatch act, 1887, 1917, the Smith a livermore act marked, such as the United States gradually in the higher education level construct technology education teaching, scientific research, promotion of a complete system, at the same time in the legislative thoughts, ideas and specific legislative technology, financing mode provides a model for subsequent federal legislation of vocational education. In 1917, the United States enacted the Smith hughes act, which aims to subsidize secondary vocational and technical education. It provides federal funds to set up vocational education courses in secondary schools, which marks the beginning of the formation of the American vocational education system.

After the second world war, the United States congress and successively passed a series of legislation to promote and standardize the development of vocational education, the vocational education law of concrete in 1963 and 1977 the youth employment and education demonstration plan act, the vocational training cooperation act in 1982, the employment training cooperation act in 1983, 1994 from the school to the jobs act. At present, the United States in the field of vocational education in the basic law for the ? Carl perkins, career and technical education act, the legislation of the earliest time for 1984 promulgated, respectively in 1998 and later was updated in 2006, is now in the implement is the 2006 revision of the "Carl d. perkins, career and technical education improvement act.

The Carl d. perkins career and technical education act of 2006 is divided into five parts, namely, bill description, state funding for career and technical education, technical preparatory education, general clauses and appendices, a total of 44 articles. Among them, the first part of the bill includes the purpose of the bill, the definition of relevant concepts, the transitional provisions for implementation, confidentiality, special provisions, prohibition, authorization of appropriations and other contents. The second part is the main content of the bill, including the allocation and quota, state provisions and local provisions. The third part is technology preparation education, including state-level fund allocation and application, fund combination, technology preparation project, alliance application, report, grant authorization and so on. The fourth part is the general provision, including the federal administration clause and the state administration clause. The last part is the appendix: technical amendments to other laws, mainly clarifying and explaining the amendments to other relevant legal texts.

The act attaches great importance to the clarification of "purpose". The second part of the bill is the "purpose", which is to "improve more comprehensively the academic, vocational and technical skills of secondary and post-secondary students who choose to enroll in career and technical education programs". To achieve this goal, the act calls for improving the quality of career and technical education, realizing the connection between secondary education and post-secondary education, improving the quality of career and technical education teachers, and carrying out lifelong vocational education. As its main language states: rely on state and local efforts to develop challenging academic and technical standards to help students meet those standards; To promote the development of services and activities that integrate rigorous and challenging academic, vocational and technical guidance and that bridge secondary and post-secondary education for students engaged in career and technical education; Increasing state and local flexibility in the provision of career education services and activities aimed at developing, implementing and improving career and technical education, including technical preparatory education; Conduct and disseminate national research and information on best practices for improving career and technical education programmes, services and activities; To upgrade state and local government leadership, initial training, and professional development, and to improve the quality of teachers, staff, administrators, and instructors in career and technical education; Support collaboration among secondary and post-secondary education institutions, bachelor's degree providers, regional career and technical education schools, local labor investment boards, businesses and industries, and intermediaries; To give students the opportunity throughout their lives to combine other educational and training programs to grow their knowledge and skills so that the United States remains competitive. These provisions indicate the basic concepts and requirements of vocational education in the United States, that is, in terms of educational objectives, the United States insists on cultivating students with strict academic and technical skills, pays attention to the cohesion between the top and the bottom in system construction, pursues flexibility and lifelong education methods, and strives to realize the universal character in educational objects.

The first part of the act clearly defines the related concepts involved, including management, career and technical education schools, career and technical education, employment guidance and academic consultation, qualified education institutions, higher education institutions, local education institutions, post-secondary education institutions and so on. On this basis, the main body of the bill is all about the implementation rules of providing financial support and evaluation for the career and technical education of state and local governments, as well as the provisions on the rights and responsibilities of governments at all levels, relevant educational institutions and educatees. All items require specific implementation. For those that fail to meet the implementation requirements, improvement and adjustment measures are specified, as well as specific punishment and accountability mechanisms.

Achieving efficient allocation of federal funds for career and technical education while promoting efficient use of these funds by state and local governments is the main goal and content of the act. The main content of the three parts of the bill is mainly from various angles of funding allocation, utilization, evaluation, accountability and other aspects.

First, in terms of allocation of funds, the bill defines the specific formula and proportion of allocation of funds. Secondly, in order to timely evaluate the progress of state and local grant recipients in career and technical education, and promote the efficient use of federal career and technical education grant, the bill focuses on the construction of accountability system, with "accountability" and "performance indicators" as its core features. As its first part is the main content of article 113 of the "accountability", which is the purpose of "accountability" is "to build and support for state and local performance accountability system, to assess the state and the eligible recipient to make progress in the field of career and technical education is effective, and optimize the federal money in the return on investment" in the vocational and technical education activities. In order to promote the implementation of the accountability system, the act also established the performance indicator system, emphasizing the implementation of vocational education and the use of vocational education funds in various states through complete, accurate and reliable information audit. Cut or waive federal funding for districts and schools that fail to meet performance targets. Specifically, the act aims at different levels of vocational education implementation and proposes to evaluate the implementation of career and technical education from two levels of state and local performance levels. According to different levels of education, the specific index system can be divided into three aspects: the core performance index of students in middle-level career and technical education, the core performance index of students in middle-level career and technical education, and other performance indicators.

First, the act places special emphasis on vocational education for special groups. Under the bill, these special groups include: individuals with disabilities; Persons from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children; Individuals trained for jobs in non-traditional fields; Single parents, including single pregnant women; Housewives who have left their jobs; A person with limited knowledge of English. The bill calls for special attention to the careers and technical education funding of these people and their performance. As a special requirement of section 112 of the act for state governments: "describe the planning strategies of qualified agencies for special populations, including the following for members of special populations -- who will have the same rights to participate in activities funded by this act; They will not be discriminated against because they are members of special groups; And will provide them with plans to enable special populations to meet or exceed the 'state-adjusted performance level' and to train special populations so that they can pursue further education and work in high-skilled, high-wage or high-demand jobs. Article 134 proposes, "to provide targeted career education services to special groups, including single parents and housewives who are forced to leave their jobs; Training for highly skilled, highly paid or highly demanding positions to enable them to be self-sufficient ". Secondly, the act also provides special provisions for the funding management of vocational education for ethnic minorities. As in articles 116 and 117 of part I, grants for Indian planning and post-secondary and technical education institutions under tribal control are provided for in particular as separate legal provisions. For example, the bill specifically authorizes a certain proportion of funds to be reserved for career technical education projects in remote areas, poor areas and indigenous Americans and other regions and populations. Among them, the bill specifically requires 0.13% of funds to be reserved for career technical education projects in remote areas such as Guam and palau. Section 116 requires that 1.5% of the funds be set aside for career and technology development projects for indigenous people in areas such as Alaska, Indian and Hawaii, 1.25% for native American tribes or tribal organizations, and 0.25% for native hawaiians. In addition to the money set aside, the remaining money would be divided among the three age groups in the state, according to the bill.

The rights and responsibilities of the federal, state and local governments in the management and development of vocational education are clarified, and the implementation focus of vocational education is put on the local level

In particular, the act makes clear the responsibilities of the federal, state and local governments in the funding and administration of career and technical education. The main content of the second part of the bill is "state provisions and local provisions", which clearly defines the rights and obligations of governments at all levels in career and technical education from the perspective of funding and use. The third part of the "general provisions" of the act is also divided into two parts: the federal administration clause and the state administration clause. From the perspective of macro administration, the responsibilities and authorities of the two levels of government in career and technical education development are clarified. One of its distinctive features is that in the articles of federal administration, there is a special clause "restrictions on federal regulations", which provides greater autonomy and flexibility for state and local governments to implement vocational education.

Section 114 of the act specifies that the federal government is primarily responsible for macro information collection and assessment. At the same time, in order to make the evaluation of federal and state governments available, the bill adopted the proposal of the senate bill to establish the core indicators for the implementation of medium and post-medium projects respectively, and detailed the academic and technical achievement standards for each level. In terms of federal and state oversight responsibilities, the act requires the secretary of education to sign a two-year agreement with the states receiving federal grants on core indicators that states can meet. This agreement can be called the adjusted target level. States can also negotiate with the federal government to change the standards if something unexpected happens. The federal department of education does not have the authority to determine the content and achievement standards for academic and career technical education at the state or local level. The bill also states that any state that refuses to apply for the perkins grant and is not obliged to submit a state career and technical education plan to the secretary of education will be disqualified from applying for other grants administered by the department of education.

Article 134 of the act is "the plan for career and technical education project", from the perspective of curriculum design proposed the responsibility of the local career and technical education institutions, mainly has: "increase in career and technical education plans the student's academic and technical skills, is through fusion method accord with challenging academic career and technical education project standards and related requirements of coherence to enhance academic, career and technical education content in such a plan, designed to ensure that the following aspects of learning: Core academic, career and technical education disciplines, providing students with a rich industry experience and understanding of all aspects in the industry, to ensure these plans for career and technical education students to participate in classroom learning content and all the other students do, meet challenging academic standard, consistent and strict content ".

In defining the concept of career and technical education, the act adheres to a combination of rigorous academic standards and vocational skills. As the bill makes clear in its introduction, "the academic, vocational and technical skills of secondary and post-secondary students who choose to enroll in career and technical education programs will be enhanced across the board." The bill defines the concept of career and technical education as "courses that provide individuals with a coherent and rigorous content consistent with challenging academic standards, relevant technical knowledge and skills." For example, "strengthening the academic, vocational and technical skills of students involved in career and technical education programs" is an important part of the bill. In addition, the act also requires students to acquire a broader range of knowledge and skills, and the ultimate goal of the service is a longer and higher, that is, not only for students' future continuing education services, but also for students to enter the current or future high-tech, high-wage or high-demand industries. On this basis, the definition of career and technical education institution also involves secondary education and post-secondary education from the perspective of education level. Secondary post-secondary education includes both associate degree and bachelor's degree institutions of higher education.

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