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The influence of religious reform in Britain on education

2018-11-29 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The influence of religious reform in Britain on education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国宗教改革对教育的影响。英国宗教改革后,其教育发生了很大的变化,随着修道院和歌祷堂的解散,一些附属文法学校随之消失。在此基础上,都铎王室兴建或重组了一些新的文法学校。除了对学校资源进行了较大的调整外,王权对英国文法学校和大学的课程调整也有了新的取向。而宗教改革对文法学校课程的影响主要表现为王室指定发行统一的文法课本。

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Grammar schools were the most distinctive medium education form in the middle ages. The highest purpose of grammar schools was to teach Latin to students. Since Latin was used to write both classical knowledge and religious beliefs at that time, mastering Latin was the key to the treasure house of knowledge. Latin learning is a long process, including three stages: the first stage is based on the stage of learning Latin letters spelling and pronunciation and word changes; The second stage is the intermediate stage namely writing practice, the genre includes prose and poetry; The third stage is the advanced stage, mainly learning language structure and language philosophy. St. augustine's school at Canterbury cathedral in 597 was the earliest grammar school in England. From the Norman conquest until the middle of the 14th century, the teaching of French was dominant in schools. When Richard ii became king in 1345, he ordered all grammar schools to abandon French for Latin.

At first, European universities generally had four disciplines, namely, art, law, divinity and medicine, among which art was the primary subject and theology, law and medicine were the advanced subjects. At the beginning of its establishment, the university of Oxford followed the example of the university of Paris and set up four departments: arts, theology, law and medicine. In 1209, there were about 3,000 teachers and students, ranging in age from 14 to 21, from different social classes. Most completed their early education in parish and grammar schools, and went to college to study theology and other specialized knowledge. The course of the university is uncertain at first, the course that each university department sets course is not consistent, in same university, before and after differ slightly. It was not until the thirteenth century that the curriculum became stable.

In the middle ages, scholasticism was an important teaching content and research object in universities. Scholasticism, which originated in the 8th and 9th centuries AD and prevailed in the 12th and 3rd centuries AD, is a kind of Christian philosophy. The earliest demonstration of Christian doctrine was godfather doctrine, which regarded Greek and Roman philosophy as heresy, opposed reason and thinking, and advocated absolute faith. As time went by, this kind of preaching was gradually questioned by people. In the 12th century, a large number of philosophical and scientific works of ancient Greece and Arabia were translated into Latin and exported to Europe. Especially after Aristotle's translated works were introduced to the west, there was a surge of interest in the study of Aristotle in the Latin world, which caused a crisis of faith in the Christian world. The church at first opposed the study of aristotelianism, but to little effect, it turned to aristotelianism for the service of theology. 1263 Pope urban ix officially recognized Aristotelian philosophy and allowed teachers and students to study it. The principal representatives of scholasticism are Albert the Great and his student Thomas Aquinas. Albert the elder sought to put scientific knowledge on the theological track and serve theology. He believed that Christianity and Greek philosophy and natural science could go hand in hand, and that it was necessary to acquire scientific knowledge and maintain the dignity of the traditional Christian church. ? Thomas Aquinas is a master of the scholastic philosophy, his main work is the theology of. ? Thomas Aquinas killing all the living and something of value in Aristotle's philosophy, Aristotle's formal logic is used to demonstrate Christian theology, to defend the church and the feudal rule.

Scholasticism had a profound influence on medieval universities. Scholasticism has since Aquinas been the subject of a long, tedious and absurd argument. Scholasticism philosophers do not discuss nature and real life, but seek out and certify from the creed of the church, and take it as a code of conduct that people must follow. This traditional prejudice, which is confined to the church, has become a mental shackle that shackles people's minds by breaking away from the real life, biting the words, biting the books, and indulging in word-playing conceptual reasoning, regardless of objective facts and pedantic academic style. But "scholasticism combines the law of imitation with the law of reason, and the law of authority with the proof of science". This means that there is a new trend of thought of doubting faith and advocating rationality in scholasticism.

It usually takes students four to seven years to complete the basic courses, and only after completing the courses of art subjects and obtaining the master's degree of art can they enter the higher professional study. In advanced subjects, law courses fall into two categories: civil law and ecclesiastical law. Civil law mainly studies Roman law. The important learning contents of church law include the complete religious code, the collection of decrees, the compilation of exclesiastical decrees and their commentaries. The medical course mainly studied the works of Hippocrates, galen and some Arab medical works. The theology curriculum is based primarily on the bible and the words of Livre des Sentences of Pierre Lombard, regarded as the complete works of Christian Canon, supplemented by commentaries by both classical and new theologians. In theological seminary, the study time is longer than that of other majors. Theological seminary is the cradle of the cultivation of bishops, priests, many popes are theological seminary graduates. "In theory, you can't go to a higher school without going to an art school. In art schools, law schools and medical schools, students must go through six to eight years of study to obtain a teaching permit. It takes 15 years to study in a theological seminary and you can't get a PhD in theology until you're 35. It can be seen that theology occupies a very prominent position in universities.

After the reformation, great changes took place in education in Britain, because some affiliated grammar schools disappeared with the dissolution of monasteries and prayer halls. On this basis, the Tudor royal family built or reorganized some new grammar schools. For example, Henry viii rebuilt 11 grammar schools founded by secular churches after abolishing many monasteries. Between 1547 and 1553, king Edward vi founded grammar schools in his own name. In addition to the larger adjustment of school resources, the royal right also had a new orientation in the curriculum adjustment of English grammar schools and universities.

The influence of religious reform on the curriculum of grammar schools was mainly manifested in the unified grammar textbooks designated by the royal family. Different from the British government's indifferent attitude towards education in the 14th and 5th centuries, the government began to pay attention to education in the 16th century. The government realized that education played a huge role in leading people's thoughts, so it strengthened the supervision of teachers and emphasized the consistency of teaching content. Previous grammar books had been handwritten, and despite their similarities, many teachers edited them as they wished. Fifteen hundred years later, with the advent of printing, it became possible to publish grammar books on a large scale. In the 1520s, there were several versions of grammar textbooks, mainly three written by John Stanbridge, John Colet and Robert Whittinton.

In order to unify the teaching of Grammar schools, Henry viii stipulated in 1542 that Lily Grammar written by Erasmus, collet and lillie was the only Latin textbook authorized by English Grammar schools, and explicitly prohibited Grammar schools from using other textbooks, so as to form a unified Grammar system and rules. From then on, Lillian grammar replaced the status of donatuswritten law prevailing in the middle ages. Lillian grammar is more complex than donatus, and students learn it by rote.

On December 2, 1547, king Edward vi issued an edict that only grammar textbooks authorized by king Henry viii could be used in schools. In 1559 queen Elizabeth decreed that school teachers should teach only the grammar prescribed by Henry viii and Edward vi. The textbook continued in modified form for about three centuries until 1858. As Foster Watson puts it, "the unity of royal grammar is essentially the same as the doctrine of authority issued by the church." The authority of the royal family was best demonstrated by the issuance of a unified grammar textbook, and king Henry viii saw the value in absorbing the views of Erasmus, collet, lilly and other famous educators. In addition to the uniform grammar textbooks, the government also requires grammar school teachers to teach the catechism, which is based on Anglican teachings. Some schools also include Greek or Hebrew in their curricula. For example, Grantham school and st. beas school in the era of queen Elizabeth studied Latin and Greek.

After the reformation, in order to get the university out of the control of the Pope, all the Tudor Kings since Henry viii sent inspectors to the university to strengthen the control of the university by issuing laws and regulations. In addition to strengthening the control of teachers and students' religious beliefs, great adjustments have been made in the curriculum.

As Martin Luther the spread of "justification by faith" doctrine, and the original Greek and Hebrew bible found that christians hope to study and improve the level of the Hebrew and Greek, by reading the original bible, to realize the direct dialogue and communication between with god. In order to break the monopoly of the church on the interpretation of the bible and eliminate the influence of the Pope on universities, the government required universities to offer lectures in Greek and Hebrew. In 1540 and 1546, Henry viii established five king James professorships in theology, civil law, medicine, Hebrew and Greek at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. After the royal tour in 1535, lectures in Greek were set up at gonville college, Christ's college, queen's college and king's college, Cambridge. In the early 1640s, lectures in Hebrew were added to king's college. St. John's college offers lectures in Greek and Hebrew. Greek lectures have been set up at Oxford's new college, all souls college, magdalene college, merton college and queen's college. In 1535 the royal visiting council forbade Cambridge faculty and students from studying the writings of medieval scholastical philosophers such as Duns Scotus. Peter Lombard's collection of quotations was banned because it was seen as one of the bulwark of papal authority. In 1549, the royal council of Edward vi appointed ten inspectors to visit the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and adjusted the university curriculum again. For example, abolish the teaching of Latin grammar in universities, encourage the study of civil law and abolish the study of ecclesiastical law.

Althusser, a French philosopher, believed that education was closely related to state power, and the infiltration of power into education was mainly reflected in the curriculum setting. In the process of the game between the English monarchy and the church of England, as the crown finally won, it was able to adjust the school curriculum according to the will of the crown, so as to consolidate the influence of the church of England in schools. Curriculum adjustment broke the monopoly of the church on education, expanded the teaching content, paid attention to the practicality of knowledge, and was objectively conducive to the development of education in modern Britain.

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