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Defense procurement in the United States

2018-11-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Defense procurement in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的国防采办。在美国,国防采办是一项重要的政治、经济与军事活动,事关国家安全。为了保证国防采办能够最大限度地发挥作用,美国将国防采办审计作为联邦审计机关和武装部队的一项重要审计工作。联邦审计机关的国防采办审计,既与本国的国防采办及预算管理体制相适应,也与联邦审计机关在国会中的作用紧密相关。

Defense procurement,美国国防采办,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

Procurement of national defense is an important political, economic and military activities, related to national security. In order to ensure that defense procurement can play its role to the maximum, the United States takes defense procurement audit as an important audit work of federal audit institutions and armed forces. The defense procurement audit conducted by the federal audit office is not only compatible with the national defense procurement and budget management system, but also closely related to the role of the federal audit office in the congress.

Acquisition of national defense refers to the acquisition and use of weapons and equipment or other munitions and services by the armed forces of a state. At present, the United States has established a defense procurement management system with the defense department as the main body and other relevant government departments as the auxiliary. Among them, the department of energy is in charge of the nuclear weapons industry, responsible for the development and production of nuclear weapons systems; The national aeronautics and space administration is the competent authority of the U.S. aerospace business, responsible for formulating and implementing the U.S. aerospace development plan and carrying out relevant basic research. The department of transportation is the competent department of transportation operations in the United States, responsible for the management and coordination of the ship industry. In the course of the implementation of national defense procurement, each service and arms category shall, as the executive department of the whole process of national defense procurement, be responsible for the specific organization and implementation of the research, production, procurement and maintenance of its own military and arms equipment. The ministry of national defense is the centralized and unified administrative department for the procurement of weapons and equipment. It is responsible for the unified management and coordination of the whole process of national defense research and development, production, procurement, testing, identification, maintenance and support of weapons and equipment.

The management of defense procurement in the United States is not invariable, and the changes are mainly reflected in the management system and methods. In terms of management system, the United States implemented complete decentralized management in the 1950s, highly centralized management in the 1960s, centralized management with multi-party participation in the 1970s and 1980s, and unified leadership and decentralized implementation in the 1990s, which have been used till now. In terms of management method, the United States adopted the theoretical method of system engineering to guide equipment procurement from the 1960s, mainly reflected in planning, budget and project management. Since the 90 s, the United States attaches great importance to the agile management advanced theory and methods of system engineering and concurrent engineering in the application of the defense acquisition, combining with the computer technology and using information technology, modeling and simulation technology and virtual reality technology and other support equipment requirements analysis, project demonstration, advanced concept technology demonstration, production manufacturing, maintenance support and procurement business and contract management work, in order to realize the simulation based acquisition and procurement of all information security service life.

Although the military procurement system and methods of the United States have been constantly changing, in general, the core purpose of all its defense procurement work is to generate operational capability. The core work of national defense acquisition mainly involves the research and development and use of weapons and equipment. The United States army, navy, air force and Marine corps present their own ideas or plans for weapons and equipment respectively or jointly when needed. The first is to predict the future battlefield situation and war pattern, propose the total demand of the mission, and then decompose the type and quantity of new weapons and equipment in the combat system. Therefore, solid theoretical research, basic research and applied research are needed. In a variety of research aspects, the government or the military mainly by their own research, or commissioned research enterprises. Research and development agencies of government departments, such as the defense advanced research projects agency and the national aeronautics and space administration (NASA), are required to carry out relevant theoretical and basic research, and these departments will also entrust enterprises with some necessary research work. After determining the technical and tactical requirements and implementation schedule of new weapons and equipment, the ministry of national defense will invite tenders to the domestic market. After scheme competition and entity competition, the best design scheme or entity launched by two competing enterprises or consortia is selected from the best. Finally, it is to sign a contract with the winning enterprise or consortium to clarify the steps and time of contract completion, quotation, personnel training, etc. After the weapon system is put into service, it is maintained and upgraded, and finally retired before the end of its technical life.

In 1921, with the promulgation and implementation of the budget and accounting act, the budget management system of the United States began to take shape. Since then, the U.S. budget management system has gone through five stages of development: itemized budget, performance budget, plan-project budget, zero-base budget and new performance budget. As a part of the federal budget, the defense budget of the United States has the same management system as that of other government departments.

Take the planning-project budget and the new performance budget as examples: around 1960s, the planning-project budget model was proposed and applied. It takes planning as the center, USES cost-benefit analysis method, integrates target planning, plan making and budget preparation, and becomes a project-oriented budget management mode aiming at improving the effect of government budget implementation. The planning-project budget model emphasizes the connection between the budget and the government's five-year or long-term plan, which objectively strengthens the budget authority of the chief executive. In 1961, the U.S. department of defense fully implemented this model. Then, in 1965, President Johnson extended this model to all government departments, and local governments at all levels followed suit. Since the 1980s, performance budgeting has come back and been called the new performance budgeting. The new performance budgeting model has four main features: decentralization, responsibility for results, enhanced transparency, and centralized control of objectives and total amount. The new performance budget model has achieved remarkable results in the United States and gradually developed into the mainstream public budget management model in Europe and the United States and other developed countries.

Although the budget management system of the United States often changes, it will never change. The guiding ideology and technical methods have not changed, and the concept of strengthening budget management will not change. The same is true of defense budget management.

One of the effective ways to manage defense programs in the United States is to present military needs in the form of annual budgets, which are closely combined with project plans according to the fiscal year. Systems engineering and other management methods commonly used in defense procurement are the technical basis for budget preparation. Take equipment research and development, use as an example, put forward from equipment plan, have detailed development plan and capital budget namely. Before the preparation of the capital budget, detailed project progress analysis should be carried out according to the procurement plan, that is, the network planning technology, industrial engineering and other methods should be used to formulate the project progress plan scientifically. As such, defense procurement in the United States can be scheduled at the start of a program based on systems engineering principles. On the basis of grasping the time node, the procurement plan and fund budget can be compiled in detail.

After the various budgets of the United States are passed by congress and signed by the President, they become the basis of budget allocation and are determined in the form of laws. The government and its constituent departments are the executing agencies of the budget and have no power to adjust the budget. If adjustments are needed, congress will issue new rules in the form of amendments. The budget of the United States is rigid, and there is no problem of intercepting or misappropriating, but the performance of funds should be made clear. The key is project management, that is, scientific management means. The U.S. congress is composed of the senate and the house of representatives. Each of the two houses has a large body to review the federal budget preparation, including appropriations committee, ways and means committee, budget committee, congressional budget office and federal audit office of both houses. Since the members of the house and senate are not technical experts in any one field, a special body is needed to provide decision-making reference for them in the exercise of voting power. The agency is the federal audit office.

The United States congress has always been concerned about whether its armed forces can meet future challenges and has set up special defense committees to promote the development of national defense. As the federal audit office of a congressional agency, it is responsible for reviewing whether the implementation results of the federal budget are consistent with the bills passed by congress and evaluating the performance of relevant departments and projects. On the military side, it is responsible for providing congress with timely and high-quality services to ensure that the armed forces protect the national interests of the United States.

Guided by the above strategic thinking, the core objective of national defense audit is to ensure that the armed forces of the United States have advanced military theories, combat readiness and sophisticated weapons and equipment. As for defense procurement, the main objectives of its audit are: whether the technical and tactical indicators of new weapons and equipment proposed by the military are reasonable, and whether they are competent for the needs of future wars; On the premise of meeting the technical and tactical requirements, whether the use of funds is reasonable, whether there will be a situation of out-of-control costs and lagging research and development; Whether purchase policy is reasonable, what risk to have to wait.

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