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The characteristics of administrative division in the United States

2018-11-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The characteristics of administrative division in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国行政区划边的特点。独立战争之后,原来英国的殖民地成为自治的州,后来又联合起来建立了美利坚合众国。美国从法国人手里收购了密西西比河西岸的大片土地,为美国开拓西部疆土奠定了基础。在这个过程当中,美国国会延续了前人的做法,经常采用经纬线和其他直线来划分州界,以致西部各州在规划县界和其他行政区划的时候,也萧规曹随,常常采取这种简便易行的方法,这就导致美国的行政区划边界有很多是直线,其中不少是南北走向的经线,或东西走向的纬线,少数州的边界甚至全部由经纬线构成。

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If you are more careful, you will find that many of the boundaries of states, counties and even lower administrative divisions in the United States are straight lines. Why is that?

After Columbus discovered America, European powers came to this place called the new world one after another to expand their territory. The west Indies and the Antilles were divided up. Spain and Portugal occupied central and South America and the southern part of North America. Britain, France and other countries were devoted to fighting for North America.

The colonists divided their spheres of influence on a land formerly owned by native Indians. In addition to using ridges or waterlines as boundaries for high mountains, rivers and lakes, they prefer simple straight lines. In the case of the British colonies, those rich and powerful nobles or colonial pioneers who wanted to acquire land ownership or management rights needed to be chartered by the British royal family. The king was on the other side of the Atlantic, and with a few lines of longitude and latitude, he got a piece of land without much effort, in exchange for the annual taxes and profits paid by the colonists, which, in most cases, they might not have seen.

After the war of independence, the former British colonies became autonomous states and later united to form the United States of America. Jefferson, the third President, purchased a large area of the west bank of the Mississippi River from the French, which laid the foundation for the expansion of the western territory of the United States. In this process, the congress continued the practice of predecessors, often using latitude and longitude lines and other straight lines to divide the boundaries of the states, so that western states in the planning of county boundaries and other administrative divisions, but also a small, often easy method.

The United States has a famous state Line called the mason-dixon Line. It was the frontier of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware and Virginia. A charter issued by king Charles ii of England to Maryland stipulating that the boundary of Maryland is the Potomac river to the south and latitude 40 degrees to the north. Charles ii later issued a charter to establish the colony of Pennsylvania, with the southern boundary of 40 degrees north latitude, but stipulated that the southern boundary intersected with a 12-mile arc near the river traver, then turned south and divided the three counties bordering Delaware bay into Pennsylvania.

But under the original charter, the three counties were originally part of Maryland, which led to a border dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania. The two sides also disagreed on exactly where the 40 degree north latitude line should be, leading to armed conflicts. It was not until shortly before the war of independence that the two sides reached an agreement under the intervention of the British king and commissioned British astronomers Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey and demarcate the boundary, hence its name. In fact, the latitude of this segment of the boundary is 39 degrees north latitude 43 minutes 19.92216 seconds.

After the independence of the United States, most northern states banned the slave trade. Pennsylvania also abolished slavery in 1781. Therefore, historically, people usually regarded the mason-dixon line as the dividing line between the northern and southern cultural customs. I remember when I first came to the United States, because I was studying and working in a university in the south, and a college classmate who had been in the northern Boston area for several years, casually joked that he might hear me speak southern English in two years.

These straight lines also reflect the disrespect that the British and their descendants showed the native Americans. Although there have been conflicts and wars between native American tribes, their boundaries have historically been established. These historical factors were largely ignored when the colonists and later the United States government drew up administrative divisions. After defeating the resistance of the Indians, they forced the signing of alliances under the cities to establish reservations for them in the remote areas, and the boundaries of these reservations were usually made up of straight lines of longitude and latitude.

In December 2009, President Obama signed a resolution apologizing to native Americans. The resolution "apologizes to all indigenous peoples, in the name of the American people, for ACTS of violence, abuse and neglect against indigenous peoples committed by citizens of the United States of America in many cases," and calls on the states concerned to work toward reconciliation with their native American tribes.

Different from the British and French colonists, although the Spanish and Portuguese also committed the crime of occupying the land of the indigenous people and persecuting and killing the indigenous people during the colonial process, they paid more attention to the territory of the indigenous tribes when dividing the boundaries. In the United States, California is also in the west, but unlike Kansas, Missouri and other western states, the boundaries between its counties are rarely straight, because it was the territory of the Spanish.

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