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American factors that affect global investment markets

2018-10-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American factors that affect global investment markets,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了影响全球投资市场的美国因素。投资市场本质上是一个经济资源配置权分割和处置权取得的市场,具有国别和市场属性的差异,不同的国家、经济组织和个人投资者都希望从中取得利益。美国因其全球经济权重和国家战略问题,其政策导向对投资市场影响是巨大的,在涉及到重要经济资源的纷争、地缘政治不稳定时,更是如此,并导致资本市场、货币市场和期货市场及衍生工具市场形成相应的风险溢价和风险损失。

global investment,影响全球投资市场,assignment代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

The United States is the richest country in the world, with a GDP of more than 10 trillion dollars, accounting for one-third of the world's GDP. The United States is a major global consumer of resources, accounting for a quarter of the world's total energy consumption and oil consumption. Besides energy, the United States is also in the forefront of the consumption of many important economic resources. The United States has about $2 trillion in international trade, more than 20 percent of global trade that year. So the United States became the world's economic engine. At the same time, the us dollar is the measurement and settlement currency of international trade and settlement and international investment.

The United States is a unique country. Its political, economic and financial policy guidance and policy means, as well as the weight of its social production, global economic resource consumption, international trade volume and weight, and the international monetary status of the us dollar have made its impact beyond the mainland of the United States and have a worldwide impact.

As a result, there are two roles for the world's investment markets: the President of the United States and the chairman of the federal reserve.

In the United States, the President is not only the representative and spokesman of national image, but also the advocate and executor of major national administration, security and economic policy orientation. As a result, the President's impact on the economy and investment markets is significant.

In the United States, the chairman of the federal reserve is known as the czar of the American economy and the world economy. This is because, the chairman of the federal reserve in the money supply, interest rates, exchange rates, prices, economic growth, full employment, to defend the dollar international monetary status and financial risk prevention, etc., have an important responsibility and has a certain policy tools selection and implementation of the initiative, is the mastermind of a promote financial reform and innovation, cooperate with the President's economic strategy.

Under the guidance of regional industrial division, globalization, economic resource allocation, international trade and investment market integration, the influence of the President of the United States and the chairman of the federal reserve extends beyond the United States and exerts significant influence on major global investment markets, forming corresponding investment opportunities and investment risks. Therefore, the economic policy orientation of American President and federal reserve chairman is a unique perspective to analyze the development trend of global investment market.

In September 2001, the United States was shocked by the events of 9/11. After 9/11, the United States launched the war on terror with a preemptive strategy, and carried out and launched wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

In during this period, as the us-led coalition forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, some local organizations, called a terrorist organization by the United States, in Europe, southeast Asia, launched a terrorist attacks in Pakistan and other regions, as well as use of kidnap hostage event, the differentiation of coalition forces in Iraq, military alliance, damp down the u.s.-led coalition in Iraq's momentum, rock part in national troops Iraq's confidence. The anti-American forces in Iraq, after the us-led coalition entered Iraq, continuously attacked the coalition, causing heavy casualties to the coalition. So much so that President bush is frustrated with his war on terror, which he says is a long war.

In the process of the evolution of these events, the security problems of the United States also has always been imminent, set up the department of homeland security did not stop to adjust domestic intelligence and security agencies, yellow and orange early warning signal light up from time to time, not only make people feel the United States is no longer as before to be safe and comfortable, also led to a serious American homeland security and global security issues of budget cost increases, causing a series of economic problems.

Economic problem path vicissitude and current restrict element. Reagan moved into the White House in the early 1980s. In order to curb the impact of gold on the dollar and soaring prices, the Reagan administration adopted policies such as raising interest rates and tightening monetary policy to curb social demand and curb price rises.

At the same time, in order to reduce the Keynesian monetary bubble formed by active fiscal and monetary policy impact on the real economy, promoting financial innovation, financial controls, currency, open futures and derivatives markets, allow the banking, insurance, social security and other short-term capital in the form of various funds into the stock market, currency and bond markets, construct virtual capital market monetary bubble, reduce the impact on the real economy. Opening up the gold futures market, allowing the federal reserve bank of the United States or other financial institutions to carry out gold lease and repurchase business, expanding the short-term gold market supply, promoting the market to form the investment expectation of lower gold price to restrain the rise of gold price, further driving down the price of gold, the international monetary status of the dollar was rescued once again.

Reagan's two terms in office have contributed a lot to the economic responsibility of the President. After the transition of President George h.w. bush, Clinton's term has achieved remarkable results.

After Clinton entered the White House, on the one hand, she inherited the achievements of the previous President's economic governance; on the other hand, she made full use of the loose supply environment of economic resources brought about by the collapse of the former Soviet union and made use of the advantages of the United States in electronics, information and network to build a new channel for the allocation of economic resources in the United States. As a result, the economic achievements of the Clinton years, the rapid economic growth, the inflation shadow gone, the dollar against the major currency appreciation, the stock market soaring, brought the people a strong illusion of wealth. Over the same period, the federal budget of the United States appeared to be in surplus, creating a miracle in American fiscal history in recent decades. In the later stage of the Clinton administration, new economic concepts were introduced, which blew the new economic bubble to the edge of bursting, and also pushed the scale of the development of American money market, capital market and futures market to the extreme, and the feast would be dispersed.

When George w. bush entered the White House, the new economic bubble burst, and the us economy and economic resource allocation capacity were unable to continue. On September 11, 2001, in the aftermath of the fateful 9/11 attacks, the dollar began to fall against major currencies. In early 2002, when the euro entered circulation, the international monetary system emerged as a counterweight to the dollar. Under the pressure of counterterrorism and the defense of monetary status, the President's economic responsibilities have suffered unprecedented hardship, with a record increase in the trade deficit and the federal budget deficit.

At the right time, the most important economic resource in modern society -- oil production capacity reached the limit of demand, and the oil price even reached a record high. At the same time, Britain, a strategic ally of the United States and an important oil exporter, became a net oil importer, an important oil producing region in the Middle East and a Caspian sea oil producing region became complicated by the conflict of civilizations due to anti-terrorism, and the supply of oil, the most important economic resource in modern society, became unstable. America's oil reserves, measured by consumption, are less than ten years old and have to launch a global strategy to address concerns about long-term supplies.

As a result, the President of the United States faces a problem of economic resources, including oil. Moreover, with the bursting of the new economic bubble, the reservoir of idle capital constructed in the Reagan era was in danger of spilling out into the real economy in the face of the surging stock. With upward pressure on oil prices on prices, capital markets falling and the dollar falling against major currencies continuing, that danger is gradually being released and the fed chairman must shoulder the burden.

After the non-monetization of gold, the status of the federal reserve in the social economy and financial operation rose abruptly, and it became the responsibility of the federal reserve to regulate money supply, regulate interest rates, expand employment, balance international payments, and promote and maintain economic growth. The chairman of the federal reserve as the decision maker and image of the federal reserve, the function of the federal reserve also placed on the chairman's shoulders.

After the 1980s, in order to cope with the monetary bubble generated by the active fiscal policies and monetary policies after the New Deal of Roosevelt, the us government authorities implemented financial innovation and constructed the reservoir of monetary bubble to save the international monetary status of the us dollar and to cope with the impact of the monetary bubble on the real economy. As a result, the domestic currency market, securities market, futures market, gold market and derivative investment instruments in the United States have been booming, hot capital diversion into the field of virtual capital market has eased the impact on the real economy, gold price has fallen, inflation rate has fallen, and the international monetary status of the us dollar has been saved. Since then, the cycle of production, circulation, division and allocation of American social economy has entered a virtuous track.

In this evolution, the fed's position has improved. At the same time, with the huge trade deficit and the growth of overseas investment, the foreign dollar holdings in the United States have risen sharply. The foreign dollar is participating in the domestic investment market together with domestic capital, and the influence of the monetary and financial policy regulation by the federal reserve is no longer a problem in the United States. As a result, the federal reserve chairman's us and global economic position gradually established.

In the United States, the role of the chairman of the federal reserve is also important because the President of the United States undertakes the strategic issues of national economic resource allocation strategy and national security, and the micro-level issues of economic operation and economic and financial policy adjustment, which are placed on the shoulders of the President of the federal reserve. There is a division of professional functions and strategies between the President of the United States and the President of the federal reserve.

In particular, after the 1980s, the chairman of the federal reserve pushed forward financial reform and innovation in the aspects of money supply, interest rate, exchange rate, price, economic growth, full employment, protection of the international monetary status of the us dollar and prevention of financial risks. For example, following the implementation of President Reagan's economic strategy after the 1980s, the price of gold was quickly subdued, the impact of gold on the dollar was restrained, the international monetary status of the dollar was defended, and the accumulation mechanism of hot money formed by financial innovation laid the foundation for the economic growth of the United States in the following two decades. In addition, the federal reserve also successfully solved the financial crisis in 1987 by using financial policy tools and operational tools, alleviated the pressure of financial risks after the bursting of the new economic bubble, and saved the investment confidence of financial markets near the collapse after 9/11.

Of course, the current chairman of the federal reserve has an important job to take on: controlling prices after the rise of oil prices, controlling financial risks after the bursting of the new economic bubble, and maintaining the international monetary status of the us dollar.

Current factors that affect and constrain fed chair economic decisions. As the President's partner in office, how the current President deals with microeconomic problems is a problem the fed chairman must shoulder. The first is the exchange rate and prices of the dollar, and the second is likely to face again the problem of liquidity in the early 1980s.

To clearly explain the history and reality of the us dollar exchange rate, some problems in the nature of currency must be clarified. The credit - money system that is now in vogue in the world has evolved from physical money. The dollar also evolved from its link to gold.

In essence, the us dollar exchange rate is the exchange rate of the us dollar against other currencies. In the field of credit currency, if the U.S. dollar has a significant trend of depreciation against other currencies or the value of the U.S. dollar is unstable, the dollar holding institutions or individuals outside the United States will reduce or give up the amount of holding the U.S. dollar. A weak dollar, on the other hand, would reduce the ability of the greenback to divide and allocate resources abroad. America's post-world war ii reliance on this capacity will be challenged, and the country's socio-economic model and economic resource balance model will be adjusted. At the same time, if the us dollar exchange rate is significantly reduced again, the price of basic economic resources in usd will rise again, which will aggravate the pressure of its price rise and further promote the decline of the us dollar exchange rate.

So even after the collapse of the bretton woods system in the 1970s, the chairman of the federal reserve worked with his President's economic strategy of stabilizing the dollar and its international currency status.

The United States is a country with the largest consumption of basic economic resources, among which the consumption of energy and oil occupies an important position in the weight of basic economic resources. Therefore, over a period of more than half a century, the price stability of the United States is closely related to the oil price, and the inflation and economic stagflation of the United States in the early 1970s and 1980s are closely related to the price of oil. The price of oil has risen 400 per cent from its low point since the turn of the new century. In turn, the new economic bubble has burst and financial scandals at some companies have hit financial markets hard.

With the rapid growth of capital stock and the drastic fluctuation of capital flow, the social function of capital accumulation will appear decreasing trend. Under the influence of related factors, hot money may overflow and impact the real economy. In the past two years, the oil-dominated international resource raw materials market has suffered from the impact of hot money, and the sharp price fluctuations have shown the seriousness of this problem.

After the turn of the century, with the burst of the new economic bubble and the implementation of the anti-terrorism strategy after the outbreak of 9/11, effective economic measures such as tax cuts and interest rate cuts have been almost exhausted. The technical means of financial policy to save the dollar exchange rate and restrain prices -- raising interest rates -- will promote the adjustment of capital market and promote the overflow of idle capital, impact the real economy and hedge its policy effect. Without higher interest rates, the dollar and prices will be hard to control as the twin deficits continue to grow.

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