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Assignment代写:Electronic waste

2018-09-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Electronic waste,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了电子垃圾。电子垃圾就是电子废物,是世界上增长最快的垃圾,它的范围包括所有的废旧电子产品,尤以废旧电脑危害最大。电子垃圾不仅数量巨大,而且危害严重,如果处理不当,那么对人类环境会造成严重危害。如果将这些电子垃圾随意丢弃或掩埋,大量有害物质渗入地下,会造成地下水严重污染;如果焚烧,则会释放大量有毒气体,严重污染空气。

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With the rapid development of China's new industries and the rapid improvement of people's living standards, the use of computers, mobile phones, printers and other electronic products in office and life has surged at an alarming rate. The electricity generated by them after being discarded has caused serious pollution to the environment. When we enjoy the convenience brought by electronic products such as computers, televisions and mobile phones, we should prevent and control the e-waste pollution as soon as possible.

E-waste, or e-waste, is the world's fastest growing category of waste that includes all used electronics, especially computers. In recent years, China's e-waste began to peak. With the rapid development of high and new technologies, the cycle of upgrading electronic products is getting shorter and shorter, and the resulting e-waste grows at a rate of 180 / o per year. According to the statistics of relevant departments, the current social holding quantity of TV sets, refrigerators and washing machines in China is 3. Seven hundred million, one. Five hundred million and one. 900 million units. Many of these appliances entered homes in the mid-to-late 1980s and are now approaching the peak of obsolescence, based on a life span of 10 to 15 years. Since 2003, China has had at least 5 million TV sets, 4 million refrigerators and 6 million washing machines to be scrapped every year.

In addition, there are nearly 5 million computers and tens of millions of mobile phones in China. Compared with common household appliances, the safe disposal of discarded computers and mobile phones should be paid more attention to, because they are updated much faster than household appliances. In 1991, there were only 1 million sichuan households in China. In 2001, there were over 100 million, and in March this year, there were 2 million. 500 million, expected to reach 500 million in 2008. Based on an average of three years' use of each mobile phone, there are as many as 70 million discarded mobile phones in China every year. The mobile phone is only the "little brother" of electronic products, so much waste is produced every year, the total amount of e-waste can be expected. How to deal with these huge waste electrical appliances safely is an urgent problem to be solved.

Not only the quantity of e-waste is huge, but also the danger of e-waste is serious. Waste household electrical appliances mainly contain six kinds of harmful substances: lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polyvinyl chloride plastics, brominated flame retardant. The cathode ray tube of the TV set, the solder on the printed circuit board and the plastic shell are all toxic substances, the cathode ray tube of the TV set contains 1. 8-3. Six kilograms of lead; More than 700 chemicals are needed to make a computer, including more than 300 chemicals that are harmful to humans. Forceps can damage the human nerve, blood system and kidney. In addition, the battery switch in the computer contains mercury, which permeates through the skin and cells and can trigger asthma attacks. It can also damage the neurotransmitter. The heavy metal elements in the case and disk drive are extremely damaging to the DNA and brain tissue of human cells.

E-waste is becoming the most human source of pollution. If these electronic wastes are disposed or buried at will, a large number of harmful substances will seep into the ground, causing serious pollution of groundwater; If burned, it would release a lot of poisonous gases and seriously pollute the air. More worrying is that as China has not established formal channels for e-waste recycling, small business hawkers have become the main force of e-waste recycling in China. The dismantling of electronic products is a highly professional and technical job, and the vendors solve the problem with a hammer and a pool of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid eats away other ingredients and leaves precious metals, while discarded acid and other harmful substances are discharged into rivers and infiltrated underground, which is undoubtedly disastrous to the environment. In short, just deal with diao; When, e-waste will pollute soil, water, plants and animals, and eventually cause serious harm to human health and life safety.

The United States is the world's largest producer and consumer of electronics, as well as the largest producer of electronic disasters and electronic pollution. The United States currently produces between 7 billion and 8 billion tons of e-waste each year, of which about 300 million used computers are eliminated alone, according to the program. While China has banned the import of e-waste, the Basel convention, an international treaty, provides for a total ban on the export of all hazardous waste from developed to developing countries for any reason. It is outrageous that America diao; It has refused only to sign the Basel convention and continues to manufacture and export electronic waste in flagrant violation of that convention. Under U.S. law, ships carrying hazardous materials out of the country must register in advance, but leave e-waste out of the way.

The imported e-waste in China has spread from the factory east to hunan, zhejiang, Shanghai, tianjin, fujian, lu and other areas. The problem of e-waste pollution is most serious in guangdong and zhejiang. In guiyu town of shantou, guangdong province, the e-waste industry started in 1995, enabling the town to employ more than 100,000 migrant workers from anhui, hunan and other places and process more than a million tons of e-waste each year from the United States, Japan and South Korea. As the treatment method is very primitive, it can only be treated by burning, crushing, dumping, direct discharge of waste liquid extracted by concentrated acid, resulting in extraordinary ecological consequences. More than 80 percent of local children are infected with respiratory diseases. Migrant workers in other provinces pay a high price for an average wage of more than 20 yuan per day. Another common disease is kidney stones. Many of the migrant workers in the provinces are women and children. Some say that guiyu's problems are just the tip of the iceberg in China.

The disposal of e-waste is a worldwide problem. In the process of electronic garbage disposal, the key is to according to the polluter pays principle, determine reasonable fee system, clear manufacturers, retailers, consumers every aspect of the obligation, to establish a special accord with technical standards of disposal mechanism, establish a social recycling service system, so as to realize the reduction and recycling of electronic waste and harmless.

China has not established a recycling management system for e-waste. Except for a small number of e-waste being recycled and treated by manufacturers, a large number of e-waste is either buried as ordinary waste or disassembled and recycled in small workshops without proper conditions. As a result, large quantities of harmful substances are discharged directly into rivers, into the ground, or through combustion into the air, forming serious pollution.

At present, China is stepping up legislation on the recycling and reuse of e-waste and plans to clarify manufacturers' obligations on the recycling and reprocessing of waste products. Experts believe that to fundamentally solve the e-waste problem, first of all, manufacturers must face up to the environmental responsibility. If enterprises have economic responsibility for the recycling and disposal of products, it will prompt them to use harmless and easily recycled raw materials to prevent pollution at the root. On the other hand, the relevant departments must be responsible for supervision. China has banned the import of e-waste, so why are so many "litter boy" able to reproduce? Was customs due diligence? Has the crackdown been thorough? Is the environmental monitoring department responsible? They are covered by something, so that the illegal operation of the "cha ye" can survive on garbage so "moist", our beautiful home into the dump "foreign garbage".

Needless to say, the problem of e-waste pollution is imminent. For the health of the people, it is urgent to deal with e-waste. It is urgent for all parties to work together to protect the living environment of our future generations.

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