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Assignment代写:Italian Renaissance consumption

2018-08-08 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Italian Renaissance consumption,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了文艺复兴时期意大利人的消费观。文艺复兴时期,由于资本主义的发展和工商业活动的繁荣,越来越多的奢侈品出现在意大利的城市市场上,导致意大利城市的物质文化和消费观念也在悄然变化。后来,意大利人逐渐摒弃了传统基督教的克己自欲、守贫的价值观,人们开始追逐一切美好的东西,由俭入奢的,炫耀式消费观开始形成。

consumption,意大利人消费观,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

During the Renaissance, as a result of the development of capitalism, the prosperity of business activity, more and more luxury goods appear on the market in the city, the Italian city of material culture and consumption concept is changed, the Italian people gradually abandoned the traditional Christian self-abnegation, since the desire and keep poor values, people began to chase all the good things, by the waste into luxury, chest-beating may consumption began to form.

The Renaissance was a great turning period in European history, the traditional Christian advocated by way of life, and the concept of impact of a strong, as the "European modern eldest son" of Italy, with the development of social economy, the rich diversity of material culture, people's consumption patterns and consumption idea, profound changes have taken place. This paper briefly describes the reason for the formation of conspicuous consumption in Italy, as well as their performance in food, clothing and residence.

Italy lies at the junction of three continents, Asia, Europe and Africa. With its superior geographical location, Italian business flourished most in Europe, with merchants throughout the Mediterranean world, even as far as north Africa and Asia. The italians have maintained frequent commercial relations with the eastern countries since ancient times. Luxury goods from the east, such as spices, silk and jewelry, were introduced to Europe very early through Italy. 14 century, an Italian businessman francesco, Mr Pecaut rorty wrote a book "business guide", the book is widely involved in the three states of the Asian and African commodity distributing center and trade routes, the European cities is the most frequent Italian businessman activity area, Italian since needless to say, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast of the main urban resident has Italian businessman. In addition to European cities, he mentioned the commercial cities of Turkey, Mongolia and China, and even calculated accurately that the journey from kfar in Crimea to the yuan dynasty would take 250 days. ? In the long run of international trade, the vast wealth accumulated by the italians, "at the beginning of the thirteenth century, commercial profits were generally 20%-50%; Even after the bubonic plague, when the economy was depressed, it was 5-8% ", and profits were surprisingly high during the boom years. As a result, Italy became a thriving commercial center of the Mediterranean world.

Italian cities are thriving and rejuvenated by huge commercial profits. By 1350, the cities of the Italian peninsula, one of the earliest sprouting of Italian European capitalism, had become starry, forming a new urban system. Cities such as Florence and Venice are famous for their handicraft production. The former textile industry and the latter shipbuilding industry are far ahead in Europe. With the prosperity of business, the industry keeps increasing and the scale of handicraft industry keeps expanding, which has also accumulated great wealth for italians. In addition, with the development and prosperity of commercial economy, the emerging banking industry appeared in Italian cities in the late middle ages, and by the Renaissance, the banking industry was greatly developed. The banking industry was very active in Italian business. Florence had more than 100 Banks in the 14th century, and all taxes paid to the holy see were deposited in local Banks. Europe's three main money-management families, baldi, peruzzi and aziuri, are all Italian. It is estimated that between the 14th and 15th centuries, Italy accounted for 500 million of the 900 million metal COINS that passed through Europe, or more than 25 percent of the money of the rest of Europe combined. Banks in Florence are mainly engaged in deposits and lending and are highly profitable. For example, Banks charge 7-15% interest on loans, while foreigners charge up to 30% interest. During the same period, the profits of the bank were much higher than that of the industry. For example, during the period from 1435 to 1450, the profits of the bank run by the Medici family reached 260,000. At that time, the profits of the industrial production controlled by the family were only 29,000. The huge profits of the banking industry have also amassed vast wealth for italians.

It can be seen that huge amounts of wealth flowed into Italy in different ways, and social wealth had accumulated to an astonishing degree during the Renaissance. Italy has seen a wealth of businessmen. In the middle of the 15th century, cauchy drink Medici and giovanni, Lucy bayer-oglesby, in accordance with the increase in more than 100000 Buddha rowling, is the biggest in Europe. Wealth gradually changed the social status of businessmen, business owners and bankers, and also influenced their consumption concept and consumption mode. Urban affluence had an important impact on the consumption of society. At this time, people's life was completely different from the frugality in the middle ages, and gradually turned to the aspects of luxury and enjoyment.

During the Renaissance, the consumption structure of Italian food changed greatly, the food variety became rich, people's requirements for food quality became higher and higher, the requirements for tableware and cooking technology became more exquisite, and more attention was paid to the ostentation of banquet guests. These fully reflect the trend of people's enjoyment and extravagance in food and beverage, which is more obvious in big cities like Venice and Florence.

Due to the development of commodity trade between the east and the west and the accumulation of people's wealth, the surrounding cities of Italy can no longer meet the needs of the cities. Only the large-scale import can meet the needs of the cities for food. During the harvest season, large Numbers of merchant ships carrying food traveled through Italy, consuming large amounts of both the poor and the rich. So ubiquitous in Italy produce from the rest of Europe, Mr When Western Europe orchid first published in 1550, the Italian anecdote about record lists all over Italy in frontal delicacies food: bologna sausage, Dana's sandwich elbow, ferrara zhu round pie, piacenza cheese and garlic flipping surface, Siena small almond cake, cheese, monza Florence's march fine sausage and mince, JiYaWei na in Venice, pheasant and chestnuts, fish and oysters, padua delicate bread and all kinds of wine. And people use a lot of spices like pepper, cloves, bean cages, cinnamon, juniper, ginger to spice up the food and stimulate the appetite. However, on the whole, the people's consumption concept is still relatively simple since the "luxury ban" was issued in the early 15th century. But around the middle of the 15th century, a consumption boom, or "extravagance," began to pervade wealthy city grandees and citizens. When leonora, the illegitimate daughter of the king of Naples, arrived in Rome in 1470, the madness of the banquet was breathtaking. The banquet at which clemons v succeeded the throne cost 15,000 gold COINS; Florence consumes 4, 000 bulls and calves, 60, 000 lambs and sheep, 20, 000 goats and 30, 000 pigs a year. And sugar, once considered a luxury, was available only to a few aristocrats and wealthy merchants in Europe at the same time, and was heavily used by the italians in the 15th century.

Table manners, on the other hand, are also evolving. The order of serving, the orientation of the table and the order of the guests' sitting are all reasonably arranged. By the 15th century, people were eating with knives and forks instead of hands, and by the 16th century, fine ceramic tableware had appeared on the Italian table. When more cultured people eat, still put stereo, along with the interest recites poem, entertain, occasionally also can recruit a prostitute or two accompany. When some europeans traveled to Italy, they marveled at the piles of food and tableware on their tables.

As the chains of Christian asceticism and mysticism were broken, people's thoughts became more open and free. As for the requirement of wearing, clothes are no longer a tool to cover up shame and keep out cold, but tend to pursue the gorgeous dress.

In the middle ages, the drab colors, wide patterns, rough texture, and lack of decorations were gradually replaced by the gorgeous and elegant, comfortable and beautiful, highly personalized new clothing. Boccaccio complained in the decameron that "women of today, as long as they put on colorful clothes and various kinds of jewelry, are higher than other women and can be respected, so they are more particular about dressing up." Women's clothes are gorgeous, made of silk, velvet or leather, with many pleats hanging from the shoulders. Off-the-shoulder clothes were folded from the buttons on the chest. The waist is tied with a belt that hangs from the back of the foot to the ground. Men wear clothes as gorgeous as women: tight sleeves, colored leggings, floppy hats, leggings from leg to waist that make for a very funny look, but look much more flattering from the waist up: velvet tops, frills and frills at the hem. In clothing styles, people are no longer satisfied with the dogmatic dressing in the middle ages, but design clothes according to their own personality and hobbies. In order to show off their wealth or noble status, people often decorate clothes with jewelry, embroidery and ribbons. Elegant clothing is usually made of velvet or silk and decorated with gold embroidery, so it is extremely expensive. Pearl bracelets, long gloves, and perfume also appeared for personal use. ORR Dan Hugh orchid first way about Italian dressing's description: "milan are always dressed in colorful, Naples, people in the clothing on the best of luxury capabilities, genoese clothes is also very beautiful, ferrara and mantua people very pay attention to a piece of gold ACTS the role of cap".

Italians often spend heavily on clothing consumption, in the consumption of recorded on the list, we can see clearly that the dew, jia ? borgia's dowry in the brocade of 50 and velvet fabrics, embroidery and lace gown, when she leave Rome took 150 mules carrying her clothes; John xxii spent 3,100 gold pieces per year on clothing alone, and then increased to 15,000 gold pieces. 1492 years of Naples fee in the prince into Rome, wearing "gold silk brocade clothes, expensive jewelry, twinkling in the chest, cap and cap also decorated with the same jewelry, wore a value 6000 du carter's pearl diamond necklace, belt and accessories of estimated values for the same money, its mounts the REINS of all du carter, 3000 worth of pearls, precious stones, decorated with all the trappings of plated with a thick layer of gold". In the face of the increasing luxury consumption, many cities in Italy have issued "luxury prohibitions", in an attempt to limit people's excessive consumption, especially in terms of women's clothing and banquet consumption. But a strong sense of vanity led people to ignore these laws, and guests were always dressed to the nines at dinner parties. Italian women are not only known for their beauty, but also for their high-end taste in clothes. The luxury consumption of Italian clothes has greatly influenced the development of the garment industry in other European countries and regions. Milan is still a fashion metropolis.

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