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留学生作业代写:Feminist Music Research

2017-09-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Feminist Music Research,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了女性主义音乐。如今,大家对女性主义音乐的研究可分为两类:一种是受人类学影响的,关于音乐行为的研究;另一种是针对音乐作品的分析式或评论式研究。前者偏重于以客观态度审视、描述特定语境中女性音乐家的行为及生活境遇;后者偏重于阐释音乐形态中隐喻的社会性别观念,研究者积极提出对作品意义、价值的见解。

Feminist Music,女性主义音乐,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

Women's studies were largely introduced into the field of musicology in the 1970s, with the original intention of "pointing out the forgetfulness of female musicians ' status in the European tradition, making their works published, recorded and studying their status in the history of music". As more and more female musicians have been discovered, music scholars have found that there are many questions to ponder behind the "Oblivion": Why are female musicians forgotten so that the history of music is "his" history? Why are women not encouraged to become professional musicians during a particular period of history and often only engage in music activities in informal settings such as family and salon? Why can't women enjoy the same music education opportunities as men for quite a long period of time? The reflection of these problems, leading people to transcend the music itself, re-examine the mainstream cultural concepts in different periods, especially the social gender concept.

In the view of feminists, "gender" and "gender" are two different concepts. The former refers to the biological characteristics of men and women, which are congenital; the latter refers to the cognizance of the connotation of men and women in specific cultural environment, they regulate the social behavior of people. For example, people often demand that men have a certain social status, to be strong and self-confident, to require women should be gentle, like neat, can be housekeeping and so on. In the process of growth, any individual is inevitably influenced by these ideas, and thus shaped to conform to the requirements of society. The French philosopher, Paula, is often quoted as saying: "Women are not born, rather they are gradually formed." ”

In the traditional patriarchal society, men are placed in the priority position. From education opportunities to career choices, from income distribution to social division of labor, women are suppressed everywhere. This is the reason why female composers are marginalized in society. Therefore, some scholars are not satisfied with the collection, collation of historical materials related to female composers, but also expected through the work and the relevant social context interpretation, analysis to criticize the patriarchal system. Among them, the representative scholar has Sllsan McClary, Marciaj and so on. They are rich in critical writings, making feminist music research gradually develop into an important critical musicol.

According to the Dictionary of Grove Music and musicians, feminist music research can be divided into two categories: first, the study of musical behavior influenced by anthropology, and the analytical or critical study of musical works. The former emphasizes on the objective attitude and this paper describes the behavior and life circumstances of female musicians in specific contexts, such as creation, performance, career choice, family life and so on, with sociological color, which is called descriptive research; the latter emphasizes on explaining the social gender concept of metaphor in musical form, and the researcher actively puts forward the meaning of the works, The view of value, not taboo, and even encourage the subjectivity of the interpretation of works, this article is called hermeneutic Research.

In order to better illustrate the differences of the two types of studies, their respective values and intrinsic relevance, deepen the understanding of the feminist music research methods, this article will choose two different styles of works ―― is the United States University of Leiden Music department Professor MarciaJ Citron's "Gender and Music classics" And Sllsan McClary, a professor of music at the University of Western Reserve in the United States, has compared and commented on its main viewpoints, research methods and academic purport by "feminine criticism of negative termination of ―― musicology". The reason why they choose both is that they belong to descriptive research and hermeneutic research, which provides good examples for this thesis. On the other hand, because they are of high quality in the research of feminist music, they have a wide influence in academic circles. "Gender and Music Classics" was written in 1993, focusing on sociological methods to describe the various social restrictions faced by Western female composers since 19th century, and effectively the cultural roots of the International Women's Music Alliance to obtain the PaulineAlderman Prize. British musician Lydia Goehr once pointed out: "This book has been very successful in presenting the most basic subjects of female music research, and its answers will be of enduring value." "Negative termination" is already well known to our academic circles, the book in 1991, is the first use of feminist criticism theory to explain the cultural connotation of music works one of the monographs. Even today, although people are mixed with this book, they cannot ignore the sharp critique of the traditional ideas of the analysis of the English and American musicology, the light connotation interpretation and the current situation in the research methodology. Claire Detels, an American scholar, said: "Over the past five years of her published papers, cultural criticism and gender studies have changed from a neglected field to an often-cited feature of the Music Society and the journal." ”

First look at descriptive research cases ―― "gender and music classics". The key question to answer in this book is: Why in the Western music culture, the female composer's work often cannot become classics, often in the marginal position? To answer this question, Hittlen focused on the 19th century, because "the time period is a day of gradual and established practices that nurture interconnectedness and eventually become a classic repertoire in the next century." On the basis of the full collection of historical data and understanding of the prevailing gender concept, the creation of female composers, the status of Life and music commentary, and the status of music publishing industry, the author mainly narrates three aspects to reconstruct the music ecological landscape.

Hittlen pointed out: In the field of humanities and arts, the formation of classics is a long historical process, it "embodies the value system of a major cultural group, it is this group to create or maintain the classic repertoire library." In other words, the classics are screened by the mainstream cultural groups through evaluation activities, which are closely related to the class, race, sex and political tendency of the group. The values of the mainstream groups are authoritative, permeate in all aspects of social life, also permeate every aspect of the classic formation, from music creation, performance to acceptance, publication, evaluation, research, education links, all by its control. Influential performers and groups choose what to put on, what the public and publishers prefer, what critics and musicians admire, and what music teachers do for the content of teaching. Their choice will make a part of the work to be highlighted, over time, the classic ranks of people. Those works that are excluded from the classical category can only be marginalized and await discovery. In the Western music culture, the so-called mainstream cultural groups, namely the upper class white in European society, they have a set of values to guide life, which directly led to the marginalization of female composers is the idea of inferiority. Hittlen pointed out that in the 19th century, the patriarchal system established in Western society was filled with some two-yuan ideas of inequality: firstly, men were often associated with culture, spirituality and rationality, while women were associated with nature, body and irrationality. In Western discourse, culture is actually placed in the opposite of nature. Culture is in a dominant position and related to men, and naturally in a disadvantaged position and related to women. Culture encompasses knowledge and the social structure of human beings, and nature implies pure, untapped intellectual state. Thus, male behavior is a cultural level of spiritual labor, such as artistic creation, female behavior is the natural level of physical labor, such as maternity and housework. At the same time, the body of a woman is considered mysterious and must be controlled for quite a while. Hittlen believes that this male control desire stems from four aspects, one is that people do not understand the physiological structure of women at that time, the second is that people believe that women can not act rationally as men do; third, men's fear of female fertility;

Another pair of two-dollar concept: Men are often associated with public space, women are associated with private space. In the 19th century, the Europeans generally believed that the gender division should be the male outside the female master, women and family can draw an equal sign. "This includes the upbringing of children, the reproduction of offspring and nature." Because the family is the core of the family, women are related to private space. However, her family authority is limited. She may have authority in front of her children, but she is not the head of the family. She belonged to. There is a hint of a passive rather than an active relationship with the world, because the husband is authoritative for his handling of affairs outside the home. Even in music, women are often limited to family music education or salons.

The above-mentioned two-yuan concept is not only for men, but also for every socialized female consciousness, become a kind of self-restraint, when they expect to music creation as a career, they will show ambivalence. Hittlen believes that the 19th century female composers often lack confidence in their creators, which is called "Author identity anxiety." She takes the sister Fanny of Mendelssohn as an example. Fanny had received a good musical education in her early years and had a passion for creation, but she hesitated when she considered whether to publish her work in her real name. In her letter to Mendelssohn on November 22, 1836, she revealed this mentality: "I'm like a donkey standing in the middle of two piles of hay about publishing." I must admit that I have a neutral view of the matter. On the one hand, Hansel supports the matter, on the other hand, you oppose. In other matters, of course, I will comply with my husband's wishes, but only at this point, your consent is very important, without your consent I may not do any such thing. "It is evident that Fanny has made herself dependent on men and has lost her independent determination." and Mendelssohn wrote to his mother: "I don't think I need to say much, and if she decides to publish something, I will do my best to help her and eliminate the difficulties that arise here." But I'm not going to encourage her to publish her work ... It is not appropriate for her to be a woman, but to take care of her home ... "It is clear that Mendelssohn believes in the idea of" outside the male and female masters. "

When a woman really embarked on a professional path, she had to face the contradictions of composers and housewives, many of whom had to marry or give up their creations. Hittlen cites a number of examples: French female composer, pianist Chaminade, who entered marriage at age 44, married a publisher Kabennair 20 years older than her, and the British composer Clark married a pianist Friskin at the age of 58 and stopped writing The American female composer Crawford, who married a national musician in the ascent of her career, gave up her composing career and turned to American folk music research for reasons such as raising children or being influenced by her husband. The stress of caring for the family and raising children makes it hard for many female composers to devote themselves to creation.

In addition to analyzing the restrictive factors of professional female composers from the perspective of creators, Hittlen also discusses from the perspective of the recipient. She believes that acceptance reflects the criteria of group evaluation in a given context, in essence, how people comment on music. Since the 1800, official music reviews have played a crucial role in the formation of the classics, which influence and shape the public interest. However, "The critic community is almost always composed of men." The scarcity of women means that women's voices and women's views are missing ... Male discourse forms the basis of professional music commentary. The reason for this is that "the role of the critic implies spiritual, intellectual and arbiter connotations: its epistemological foundation lies in disseminating knowledge to others." This allows people to backtrack to the concept of God, the supreme authority of God. However, God is a male, thus, women do not have the ethical foundation necessary to spread knowledge ... As a result, few women commentators have appeared.

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