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美国作业代写:Israel's problems

2017-07-17 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Israel's problems,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了以色列的问题。一直以来,以色列和巴勒斯坦的冲突严重影响了两国人民的生活,造成很多家庭流离失所。而两国的战乱也是由于领地的争夺导致的。巴勒斯坦人从不承认以色列国的合法性,巴以矛盾尖锐并长期引发阿拉伯世界和以色列的严重对立。


Analysing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has demonstrated thus far to be a rather perplexing task. In the midst of the stormy sea of ambiguity, there seems to be an unsettling abundance of waves of extensively varied view points crashing down onto the paradoxical accounts of history, and utterly contrasting rationalization in relation to the root of the quandary. This paper intends to clarify why this is. General academia suggests that the reason for this difficulty is the fact that there are disagreements over the origins of Israel.

A further analysis will be into the many aspects of Israel's past and present actions including the ownership of land, discriminatory legislation, the ethnic cleansing and military occupation. Needless to say, this may paint a very different picture from the classic tale of the tiny, heroic nation forced into a struggle for its continued existence from the very start against relentless, murderous and bloodthirsty enemies; a nation that has erred but done everything in its power to achieve and uphold nobility by the purest of means.

Undoubtedly, an extensive study is needed in order to draw attention to this reflective disparity. That Western pro-Israeli propaganda has an immense impact on this is not at all in doubt but there is seemingly a more elemental and deep seeded reason. That is security.

Security has been the primary justification for the scope of Israeli policies throughout history. This was evident from the population expulsions in 1948 to the building of the aparthei.... separation wall 60 years later. Security and defence is the reason why Israel is forced to take such measures, however objectionable they may be.

The pro Israeli argument is that Israel is a country that struggles for survival. Even if one was to set aside Israel's immense military fortitude a question arises as to why the existence of a Jewish state would be so objectionable to Palestinians. Unlike today's rosy holy auto-proto messianic apologists, early Zionists were refreshingly candid about the reality of their aims. This will be later discussed in depth.

One foremost Zionist leader and theoretician was Ze'ev Jabotinsky. This man has more streets in Israel named in his honour than any other historical figure[1]. Written within what was perhaps his most famous essay from 1923, Jabotinsky did clarified one thing. That is that; "Zionists colonisation, even the most restricted, must either be terminated or carried out in defiance of the will of the native population."[2] Why is this? Purely because, history shows that "every indigenous people will resist alien settlers."[3]

This paper is intended to offer an insight as to what Zionism has meant for the Palestinians, how Israeli apartheid has been continually implemented, and suggestions for how it can be resisted and rectified. Throughout, references will also be made in relation to the work of the multitude of academics, writers and the blessed journalists[4] who have researched, documented and witnessed the unfolding of a form of apartheid in Palestine.

In order to do this, a clear and concise definition of apartheid is needed in accordance with international law. Further to this an analogy must be made between South African apartheid and Israel in order to fully comprehend the similarities and of course the differences between the two.

For the purpose of the present Convention, the term "the crime of apartheid", which shall include similar policies and practices of racial segregation and discrimination as practiced in southern Africa, shall apply to the following inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over another racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them...[5][Emphasis added]

Article II, International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, UN General Assembly

Resolution 3086, 30 November 1973

Though the state of South Africa is most connected to Apartheid as it is the context from which the term is derived,[6] the crime of apartheid itself is far more widely defined. This is a key point in relation to the study of apartheid in Israel since, even if one was to set aside the comparison to South Africa specifically, there exists some kind of measure by which the world may assess Israeli policy towards Palestinians.

The UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid in 1973. This meant that a comprehensive description of what unerringly the "crime of apartheid" looked like should be established. From this list of "inhuman acts" derived from the convention, below listed are a number of acts particularly worth noting;

Denial to a member or members of a racial group or groups of the right to life and liberty of person... by the infliction upon the members of a racial group or groups of serious bodily or mental harm, by the infringement of their freedom or dignity, or by subjecting them to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. [7]

Any legislative measures and other group measures calculated to prevent a racial group or groups from participation in political, social, economics and cultural life of the country... [including] the right to leave and return to their country, the right to a nationality, the right to freedom of movement and residence... [8]

Any measures including legislative measures design to divide the population along racial lines by the creation of separate reserves and ghettos for the members of a racial group or groups... the expropriation of the landed property belonging to a racial group... as will be further analysed, Israel has been and continues to be guilty of these crimes, which are all the more serious for having been "committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons".[9]

In recent times, at an international conference, the Rome statue of the International Criminal Court (ICC) was adopted in 1998.[10] It comes as no surprise that Israel was in fact one of seven countries to vote against the statute. 148 countries voted in total. The ICC Statute incorporates the "crime of apartheid" in a list of "crime against humanity". It further goes on to describe apartheid as:

Inhumane acts... committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime...

Thus, suffice to say, even before the South Africa and Israeli Apartheid analogy is made, the criteria for what constitutes Apartheid is set out with a high degree of clarity under international law. With this it is possible to analyse Israeli policies since 1948 and in as far as possible, understand what this has meant and continues to mean to the Palestinian people.

"supporters of Israel present Zionism as an ideology of liberation of the Jewish people, but for Palestinians, Zionism, as it has been practiced and as they have experienced it, has been precisely apartheid."[11]

-The South Africa comparison

If Palestinians were black, Israel would now be a pariah state subject to economic sanctions led by the united state. [12]

Observer, October 2000

White settlers in South Africa, like Zionist pioneers, colonised a land already inhabited. As on South Africa, the settlers in Palestine expelled the indigenous population, some two-thirds of the Palestinians in the land that became Israel in 1948, took possessions of their properties and legally segregated those who remained.[13]


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