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留学生作业代写:Irony in An Outpost of Progress

2017-07-06 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Irony in An Outpost of Progress,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了约瑟夫·康拉德的小说《进步前哨》。在《进步前哨》中,约瑟夫·康拉德运用了大量的反讽手法。反讽是最常用的写作技巧之一,它可以给读者留下深刻的印象。反讽的运用也有助于作家对读者的隐含意义,使作家能够通过讽刺的方式吸引读者的注意力和好奇心。小说《进步前哨》在整个故事中以另一种方式使用了反讽,帮助了他的作品成为了伟大的杰作。

An Outpost of Progress,进步前哨,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

Abstract

The use of irony in the works of writers has already become an inevitable skill for the great majority of writers to indicate their being superb in writing. Also, the use of irony can help deliver the writers’ connotative meaning to the readers so that writers are able to successfully draw the attention and curiosity of those readers via the use of irony. Joseph Conrad’s short story “An Outpost of Progress” is also such a work that has used irony in various aspects throughout the whole story and Joseph has really used irony in a skilled way. Therefore the following paper will focus on explaining the use of irony in Joseph Conrad’s short story “An Outpost of Progress” and the functions of irony use.

Introduction

Irony, one of most frequently used writing techniques, is supposed to be effective in leaving a deep impression on the readers. So it is a common sense that irony will be preferred by the writers when they hold that the use of irony can better convey what they would like to express in their writing. It happens that Joseph Conrad’s short story “An Outpost of Progress” has used irony in one way or another throughout the whole story and the use of irony has really helped his work to be a great masterpiece more or less. And it is said that irony is a common theme in most of Joseph Conrad’s writings (Ashmita Saha. 2010). Thus the following will elaborate on the irony in “An Outpost of Progress” and the functions of different irony use, during which some other scholars’ research outcomes will be applied as support.

First and foremost comes that Ashmita Saha, a regular reviewer of famous literary works, has proposed the central irony in Joseph Conrad’s An Outpost of Progress which is the gradual degradation of two civilized white men in the heart of Africa (Ashmita Saha. 2010). To put it more specifically, Kayerts and Carlier are originally two ordinary European white men who have been responsively appointed as the chief and the assistant to a distant trading station in Africa to supervise the ivory collection of that station. So we may have a fair knowledge that these two white men can do well in overseeing the collection of ivory. But what is out of our expectation is that when these two white men are isolated in that strange land, they do not know how to improve their living conditions because of no strict disciplines from the society and they step on the track of gradual degradation (Ashmita Saha. 2010). Mentioned in Joseph Conrad’s An Outpost of Progress, “They were two perfectly insignificant and incapable individuals, whose existence is only rendered possible through the high organization of civilized crowds”(Joseph Conrad. 2016), from which we can know that these two white men tend to be at sea when they are separating from their familiar civilized society. So the irony can be firstly seen from the fact that these two white men’s past decent living conditions are given by the society’s system of punishment and reward (Ashmita Saha. 2010). Once they are deprived of such a system, they are unable to maintain their superior living conditions any more.

The irony can as well be seen from the callings of these two white men from ‘my dear fellow’ as they two are dependent on each other in that distant trading station and they get only get meaningful company from one another in the first beginning to their mutual distrust and Kayerts killing Carlier simply because of a trivial dispute at the end (Ashmita Saha. 2010). In addition, Kayerts’ decision to commit suicide after his killing Carlier can be seen as the intensification of the use of irony in that Kayerts can not believe what he has done and he is unable to face the consequence of his own behavior. Concerning the suicide of Kayerts, Martha Fodaski Black has given concrete illustration about how the irony can be clearly indicated. It is mentioned that at the end of “An Outpost of Progress”, the Managing Director discovered the dead Kayerts and he was only “somewhat discomposed”, from which we can easily predict that the company official was indifferent toward the minor bureaucrats that had been consigned to the distant trading station (Martha Fodaski Black. 1985). On one hand, the Managing Director’s reaction while discovering the dead Kayerts is ironical in itself. On the other hand, the Managing Director’s not being given a proper name but a title is also suggestive of the irony. Besides, the incongruous pose of the dead Kayerts out of irreverent suicide, especially the sentence “he was putting out a swollen tongue at his Managing Director” (Joseph Conrad. 2016), can be regarded as an ironic signal of the failure of the Christian ethic (Martha Fodaski Black. 1985). Kayerts’s final gesture shows his contempt and disgust for “progress”, from which we can get that even the title of Conrad’s tale “An Outpost of Progress” is an irony. That is to say, the miserable fates of those two white men for progress can well discuss how ridiculous the so-called “progress” is.

However, the central irony lies in that these two white men are sent from a civilized European country to the uncivilized Africa and they are believed to bring ‘light, and faith and commerce to the dark places of the earth’ (Ashmita Saha. 2010). But what is out of our expectation and what right makes it ironical is that these two individuals simply surrender to the dark forces of ‘primitive man’, ‘primitive nature’ together with ‘pure unmitigated savagery’ (Ashmita Saha. 2010), let alone achieving their mission there. Or maybe it can be put in another way that these two white men directly lose the values they have learned in their civilized country and they are easily defeated by the dark forces within themselves which have been repressed by the shackles of their civilized society all the time.

Furthermore, the attitude of those two white men toward the nigger Makola can powerfully show the irony (M’hamed Bensemmane. 2011). Detailed speaking, Kayerts and Carlier looked down upon Makola and they two did not pay any attention to him at first. But when they knew that Makola was able to get the ivory, they two agreed that Makola was really a competent person so that they two thought that “This Makola is invaluable” (Joseph Conrad. 2016). While their attitude toward again changed when they found that all the men in the trading station had gone, this time they used words like “filthy scoundrel” and “beast” to describe Makola and they two turned to be quite hostile toward Makola. The frequent changes of these two white men’s attitude toward Makola can, to a certain degree, show that these two men are pretty incompetent. Thus, the irony appears that two incompetent white men would like to control the competent nigger.

Conclusion

To sum up, a natural conclusion can be drawn that Joseph Conrad’s short story “An Outpost of Progress” is really a work that is with the use of irony here and there. There is no doubt that there are many uses of irony elsewhere as have not been mentioned in this paper, which calls for future research to achieve.

References

1. Ashmita Saha. May 04, 2010. The Central Irony of An Outpost of Progress. Online available from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Central-Irony-of-An-Outpost-of-Progress&id=4228180.

2. Joseph Conrad. 2016. An Outpost of Progress. CreatSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

3. Martha Fodaski Black. November 1985. Irony in Joseph Conrad’s “An Outpost of Progress”. The Conradian. Vol. 10. No. 2. pp132-134.

4. M’hamed Bensemmane. 2011. Conrad’s Picture of Irony in “An Outpost of Progress”. Online available from: http://jsse.revues.org/1131.

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