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留学生作业代写:The Fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942

2017-06-06 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The Fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了1942年马来亚和新加坡的沦陷。在第二次世界大战中,马来西亚和新加坡拥有丰富的资源,在日本看来是一个非常重要的战略目标,所以就对其发动了侵略战争。在1942年马来亚和新加坡沦陷后,日本对东南亚被占领地区的统治无疑是中央集权和军事法西斯主义,是日本统治东南亚的开端。

The Fall of Malaya and Singapore,马来亚和新加坡的沦陷,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

With the success of the Meiji Restoration, Japan has won in a series of foreign wars such as the Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, with its increasing national strength. This led to a vicious expansion of Japan's desire to become hegemony in the world and launched a comprehensive war of aggression against China in 1937. In 1941 the Pacific War was provoked, and the army invaded the Southeast Asia, and began four years of colonial rule. In this article, it is give an outline of the fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942 after Japan’s military aggression, political slavery and economic plunder in Malaya and Singapore during World War II.

In the Newspaper Article entitled No lack of maps in S'pore battle published on The Singapore Free Press on 18 May 1949, it is to deny one cause of fall of Singapore ----lack of maps leading to the fall of in 1942. It reports the allegation of the relationship between lack of maps made by Malaya and fall of Singapore. However, in this news, such allegation is denied from several perspective: Malaya military headquarter has already ordered the production of proper number of maps, which was confirmed by surveyor general F.M.S and S.S by citing their remarks in certain conference and an exact weight of maps were given as 12 tons; then the efforts of production workers was given a very detailed description.

The usefulness of this newspaper lies in points a new reason for the fall of Singapore, which is hardly noticed today but its usefulness is limited as a result of limitations of these newspaper clippings as sources for historians. At first, it was published on the Singapore Free Press Singapore, an authoritative and large newspaper group with a dozen of newspapers. But all over the news, there are only voices and opinions made by the official governments,. But it gives a very detailed analysis of the effort made by the production workers of maps, by describing their working conditions and effects made by air raids, but it gives no voice to the witness or any individuals. And the remarks of two individuals who are once government officials are dead. This makes the denial of allegation suspicious. Also, it reports on a minor reason of a lot of causes leading to fall of Singapore, although it is a manmade one and can be avoided.

The strategic and important position of Malaya and Singapore is one of the main reasons leading to the invasion of Japan, who was in dire need of strategic resources. Malaya, with its unique geographical, historical and economic conditions, is the maritime, economic and strategic point of the British Empire in Asia. Singapore is located in the entrance of the Strait of Malacca between Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean shipping routes. It is Asia, Europe and Oceania's cargo transportation center, the International Aviation Center. The strategic position of it is very important. Southeast Asia is rich in resources and energy, mainly oil, tin, copper, natural rubber, wood, rice, coffee, corn, palm oil, coconut oil, coconut kernel, sugar and so on. In particular, Malaya's natural rubber, tin, logs, copper, iron ore are important strategic materials and industrial raw materials. In 1933, the rubber production of Malaya took account of 40 percent of world production and the percentage of tin production of Malaya was 60 percent alone (britain-at-war.org., 2016), which are all huge temptations for Japan.

The invasion and occupation of Malaya and Singapore from Japan is also to gain an advantage over the Allied nations. Southeast Asian countries in the Second World War were almost entirely under the direct rule of the Western powers, respectively, the United States and the Netherlands and other countries of the sphere of influence, and Southeast Asia rich natural resources, natural energy under the control of the Western colonial sovereign state. Although Japan realized the occupation of North Korea and China's vast territory through the war of aggression, the oil, rubber and other special resources can not be met. On the contrary, this important strategic resources, and industrial raw materials flowed to European and American countries from the countries close to Japan. For example, the rubber and tin production of Malaya in 1933 was all exported to the United States  (britain-at-war.org., 2016).  This not only can not make up for poverty and weaknesses of their own resource, but enrich their competitors. Japan is unwilling to see this. In the competition of international resources and market, the Japanese can realize the goal of excluding the United States and the Netherlands and other Western countries, through the occupation of Southeast Asia, which greatly weakened competitors. In addition, Europe and the United States were still building military bases in Malaya and Singapore, to expand the Asia-Pacific region wantonly, affecting the status of Japan as Asia's hegemony. Japan naturally refused to let this unregulated.  On December 8, 1941, Japan expected to destroy the Anglo-American Southeast Asia's main base of Anglo-American, for the establishment of "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Circle". It began to plunder Southeast Asia's strategic resources, to support its war, and to help it get out of the plight of the battlefield in China as soon as possible. At the same with attack on Pearl Harbor, it launched a strong offensive war to the Southeast Asian countries, including Malaya and Singapore.

The fall of Malaya and Singapore was happened very quickly in 1942.  The Battle of Malaya was one of the important battles among the Japanese invasions in Southeast Asia. Facing the of danger Japanese occupation, the British main defense policy was to defend the naval base in Singapore. The commander-in-chief and General Percival commanded an army of 10 million, and the Navy formed the Far East Fleet. Before the war also sent a so-called "never sink" the latest warship,” HMS Prince of Wales" and high-speed battleship "Repulse". Britain believes that this line is impregnable, which will prevent Japan from south. But in only two days, in the waters east of Guam, the sea battle ended up with the failure of British Far East fleet after the invasion of nearly 100 aircraft attack by Japan led by General Yamashita. And “HMS Prince of Wales" and high-speed battleship “Repulse” which were known as to never sink" were shot. The navy of Britain was conceited, as warships have been seen as a symbol of national prestige. So the sinking of the warship is also equal to the loss of so-called British national prestige. The defeat of the British Navy lead to its severely frustrated morale, but in contrast the Japanese morale boosted after the pace of the attack. At the end of December, the Japanese army has advanced from the north to the south of the Malay Peninsula quickly, and all the way was marched with irresistible force. In January of 1942, the army occupied the capital of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. And by the end of the month, the British were forced to withdraw from Malaya, and were retreated to Singapore. The British planned to use the virgin jungle of Malay as a cover for Singapore, which proves to be wrong. Although the number of British garrison was up to hundred thousand, they have finished the bombing of Johor, and the long embankment to block the Japanese offensive before the Japanese arrived in the new mountain, the Japanese army bombarded it from high ground of the new mountain palace, with artillery, while at the same time dispatched aircraft bombing. Until February 7, by the use of night as a cover, the Japanese army crossed through the Johor Strait, landing in Jurong. The British will never remain back to power. In February, the British surrendered. In February 18 Japan announced the claim of Singapore.

The fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942 is largely caused by careful planning and correct and vigorous invasion strategy of Japan.  The Second World War launched by Japan is a long-planned war, with a lot of thoughtful and detailed operational plans. As early as October 1941, a special cabinet--- the Tojo Cabinet was set up under the control of the Ministry of Military Affairs which had a plan to "go south".  In order to cover up the armed forces southward, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet of Japan deliberately in March 1941 planned to attacks: a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and a surprise attack in the Southeast Asia. Selected units were given specialized training in jungle warfare and amphibious operations; secret agents were sent all over the war areas all over the world for espionage and reconnaissance; maps of war areas were collected; morale inspiration was spread to units; special striking forces were trained; and the relevant transport and convoy facilities was prepared. The Japanese militarists were also engaged in a confusing propaganda in the Southeast Asian region, advocating the Japanese national superiority theory, and the mission of liberation of Asian nationalities from Europe and the United States rule and powers. In the strategic and tactical aspect, the military department of the Imperial Japanese Government made a surprise attack and night landing plan.  Speed and unconventional fighting method was of the essence for the Japanese. The Japanese planned to win in the first battle, if the victory was acquired in Pearl Harbor, while in the battlefield in Southeast Asia it was passive; or in Southeast Asia it fared well, while the attack on Pearl Harbor failed, which were all not the purpose of Japan, Japan was to get the overall victory. The Imperial Japanese Government had devoted itself to fight against the United States, Great Britain, and the Netherlands in a rather positive manner since 5 November 1941 and a formal decision was made by the Tojo Cabinet In the Imperial conference on 5 November 1941 . Thus, the Pacific War is different from and Manchuria Incident and the Japanese-Chinese War, as it is based on a clear national will to start it from the beginning of the Pacific War and the Japan is fully aware of the need to conduct a national power to do so. At least the war was carried out in the form of full implementation of the national policy.  In order to the success of war, there were Japan's actual combat exercises several times.

Also, strategic mistakes of the Britain and over optimism of impregnability of Malaya and Singapore also contribute to the fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942. During the attack of Malaya and Singapore, the Allies were engaged in the war in Germany, with no time to Eastern countries. And the prevalence of idea of underestimating the war was seen among the British garrison generals in Southeast Asia, and they underestimated the possibility of Japan provoking war. From the beginning of the Second World War to 1941, all the main energy of the Allies into the war was allocated to war with the German fascists. The intention of the Japanese in Asia, ready to stir up and echo with Germany, although noticed, but was largely ignored. The United States was neutral on the surface, not involved in the war. It just gives some "economic sanctions" to the Japanese’s proactive march to South. Therefore, when the Japanese military aircraft arrived in Pearl Harbor, the US military know nothing. Also, it was long believed by the British High Command that the mountains, jungle and swamp of Malaya was impenetrable and will block the signals of the Japanese imperative army and Singapore was impregnable with its main coasts fortified with caliber naval gun. When the Japanese warships together anchor pull for the departure to the Malaya Peninsula, in the Singapore Navy base Malay British army commander General Percival was still asleep. The defenses in Malaya and Singapore were basically unprepared with poor coordination. Using the paralysis underestimate of the United States and Western powers towards the enemy, the Japan was to take pre-emptive attack tactics, and made a temporary sea and air superiority, with the control of the initiative in the war.

Politically, after the fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942, Japan's domination of the occupied areas in Southeast Asia is centralized and military fascism. This is the primary feature of the Japanese rule in Southeast Asia. After Japan's armed aggression against Southeast Asia, the Japanese realized occupation of Malaya and Singapore, and then the rapid establishment of the military government followed. At the same time, martial law was promulgated, and all political parties and trade unions were banned, and large-scale raids were carried out for brutal repression of the anti-Japanese people, Communists and overseas Chinese. In Malaya and Singapore, there are a lot of overseas Chinese, in support of the motherland. Chen Jiageng as an overseas Chinese, launched a massive anti-Japanese national salvation movement after the Japanese invasion of Malaya. And some Singapore overseas Chinese organized Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army. The Japanese invaders repressed this. Yamashita, leader in the occupation of Malaya and Singapore inspected local Chinese one by one and took the opportunity to carry out mass arrests and massacres in Kakyou Shukusei or Dai Kenshou, known in the Chinese community of Singapore as the Sook Ching. The large scale purge carried out by the Japanese army in Singapore and Malaya is a prominent example of its military fascism.

To sum up, Japan’s military aggression of Malaya and Singapore is planned, leading to political slavery and economic plunder in Malaya and Singapore during World War II.

Reference List

Britain-at-war.org.uk. (2016).Malaya and Singapore

http://www.britain-at-war.org.uk/WW2/Malaya_and_Singapore/body_index.htm

Chen,C. P . (2016).Invasion of Malaya and Singapore. World War II Database

http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=47

Diamond, J. ( 2015). The Fall of Malaya and Singapore: Rare Photographs from Wartime Archives.  Pen and Sword. https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=HH6uCAAAQBAJ&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=The+Fall+of+Malaya+and+Singapore:+Images+of+War&source=bl&ots=L59UBrPBdj&sig=XpDcFN2pYndbwqVove-3stO7DfY&hl=zh-CN&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiy-_yr_YnQAhXIS7wKHWT2DtYQ6AEIQDAI#v=onepage&q&f=false

Hirofumi, H. (2016). The Battle of Singapore, the Massacre of Chinese and Understanding of the Issue in Postwar Japan | The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus http://apjjf.org/-Hayashi-Hirofumi/3187/article.html

History.army.mil. (2006).Chapter I: Pre-War Japanese Military Preparations 1941. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V2%20P1/ch1.htm

Singapore Press Holdings. (2016). Home http://www.sph.com.sg/home/

The Singapore Free Press. (1949). Newspaper Article - No lack of maps in S'pore battle. Page 7 http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/freepress19490518-1.2.92.aspx?q=The+Fall+of+Malaya+and+Singapore+in+1942&page=1&sort=relevance&token=1942%2cin%2csingapore%2cand%2cmalaya%2cof%2cfall%2cthe&sessionid=9fc969bf0cbb4b6ab51d970c1922c3ea

Trueman, C. N. (2016). "The Fall of Singapore" historylearningsite.co.uk. The History Learning Site, 19 May 2015. 16 Aug 2016. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/world-war-two/the-pacific-war-1941-to-1945/the-fall-of-singapore/

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