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Crisis Management Plan Guidelines

2020-11-17 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Crisis Management Plan Guidelines,文章讲述处理突发事件、扰乱社区和组织文化变化的能力被称为危机管理。近年来,我们已经能够触碰跨界危机,影响了多元化的利益相关者。例如,日本2011年的海啸,导致供应链遍布世界各地,特别是在汽车行业。

处理危机的艺术需要有技能和知识来组织利益相关者的恢复。危机管理使人有能力在突发事件和逆境中培养技能,在应急组织中有勇气和决心。协调对可能危害和摧毁结构、有效和有效运作能力的更广泛事件的应急反应。规划和自动事件响应的连续性评估成为危机管理计划过程中的一个主要部分。

 

Introduction 简介

The ability of dealing with unexpected and sudden events that disturbs communities and changes in organization culture is known as crisis management. In recent years we have been able to palpate transboundary crisis, that have affected stakeholders in multiple forms. For example, the 2011 tsunami of Japan, which interrupted supply chain all over the world, especially in the automotive industry (Crandall, Parnell & Spillan, 2010).

 

This art of dealing with crisis requires skills and knowledge to organize stakeholders’ recovery. Crisis management prepares the person to develop skills in an unexpected and adverse circumstances within the organization of an emergency response with courage and determination. The coordination of the emergency responses to a broader incident that threatens to harm and destroy structures, ability to operate effectively and efficiently. The continuum evaluation of the planning and automatic incident response becomes a major part of the process in a crisis management plan.

 

Organizational resources available in a crisis in Dominican Republic.

According to Crandall, Parnell & Spillan (2014) there are countries and cultures that are known as “crises-prepared”, because they have been able to train and support any crisis planning to overcome their weakness. The Dominican Republic is not the exception, when a crisis arises the community and Dominican Civil Defense are the first to respond to the emergency, as first responders. Nevertheless, not everyone is prepared to assist another person or assume a role of leadership in the process of an emergency crisis.

 

The national emergency and communication system, known as the Center for Emergencies Operation, [COE], in its role of the leading agency nationwide in a crisis, and responding organization has been able to develop competence and abilities to assist potential crises and manage the ones that eventually occur. The Center for Emergencies Operation, [COE], is entitled to develop, review, implement and train personnel, volunteers and the community in reference to the national plan and management for emergencies nationwide. The Dominican Civil Defense, are the first responder to the scene of a natural disaster or crisis. This is one of the emergency groups, at least, most known in the country as trained first responders to any type of emergency. The Dominican Civil Defense began their community services as a group of volunteers to the community by providing communication services as radio amateur by 1963.

 

Their first official support to the community was with Hurricane Flora, where they proved how they were effective in providing communication nationwide under an emergency disaster as a hurricane. The Dominican Red Cross allowed them to station their central communication within their center. By, 1966, the Dominican government enacted the Law 257, which created the Dominican Civil Defense as an official organism to assist emergencies. Therefore, becoming an official state institution under the umbrella of the Center of Emergencies Operation, COE.

 

In September 22, 2002, the government enacted the Law 147-02 by which the risk management, became the official emergency governmental Agency in charge of developing the national emergency and communication plan along with its regulations. As general principles they abide by to protect, coordinate, participate, teach prevention and decentralize services. Their primary goal is to prevent or reduce loss of lives and minimize property damages of civilians and government from natural disasters or manmade disasters.

 

The Dominican Civil Defense, is one the organisms under the umbrella of COE, as well as the Dominican Red Cross, Energy Conservation Department, Fire Department, Police Department, Dominican Port Authority, Health Department, Environment and Natural Resources Department, Dominican Seismological Institute, National Housing Department, among others, have been recognized as an emergency crisis team of technicians and professionals local, national and internationally for its work team on behalf of those in need and the community.

 

In the case of the Dominican Civil Defense, their manpower is composed of 95% of constant trained volunteers, an executive director, an officer corps, and departmental managers who, according to their academic preparation begin working for the community and the benefit of the country. According to Treurniet, Van Buul-Besseling & Wolbers (2012) the community may be defined as a group of people living in the same area and having a particular characteristics in common of being a human being. And as such, they will belong to different groups and communities, sharing their understanding of a true active community work, towards each other.

 

By 2014, the Dominican Republic implemented for the first time in its history the services of 911. As one of the new emergency resource services center, its authorities in charge felt the need to educate massively the population about the use and benefits of 911. The communication strategy was massively used (television and radio) during the following two months prior to the activation of the 911 system nationwide.

 

Pearson & Mitroff (1993) expressed that there is a need of collaborating with the community, because it provides a sense of being part active within the community. Furthermore, they explained that the community can share their expectations, assessing their needs and goals of those who are needing assistance. In times of crisis, the knowledge of collaborating formally or informally with organizations in reaching one goal of helping out another person becomes a resilient behavior (James & Gilliland, 2013).

 

In the Dominican Republic, Center for Emergency and Communication Operations, [COE] would be similar in its function to what FEMA is in the United States. The Dominican Civil Defense is allocated under the umbrella of the COE. This Center would be part integral of the Crisis Management Team, CMT and the Crisis Management Plan, CMP. COE coordinates constant trainings with national and international agencies who are also dealing with emergencies and crisis in order to exchange experiences and train with new techniques.

 

Today, the Dominican Civil Defense has become one of the institutions of the Government that has one of the best communication networks in the country after the Armed Forces. They have a communication system in the UHF band or ''ultra-high frequency" recently installed, and a fleet system is national in scope, in addition to conventional phones. Currently, the Dominican Civil Defense has a radio station, which is the soul of the institution in crisis and emergencies that operate 24 hours a day and the 365 days of the year (Dominican Civil Defense, 2014).

 

Crisis Theories. 危机理论

Theories make several assumptions in order to provide an explanation of a given situation. Several authors, such as James & Gilliland (2013) explains that the Eclectic Crisis Intervention Theory entails an intentional and systematic selectively integrated valid concepts and strategies to help the victims from different approaches. This particular theory begins working as a task-oriented theory, instead of using concepts. Several major tasks identified in this theory are:

 

Identify elements in all systems and to integrate them into an internally consistent whole providing a more accurate behavioral data to be explained.

Consider all existent theories, methods, and standards for evaluating and manipulating clinical data according to the advanced knowledge of time and place.

The need to identify with no specific theory, with an open mind and continuously experiment with those formulations and strategies that produce successful results.

This particular theory integrates two pervasive themes. The first of those theme is that people and all crises are unique and distinctive, therefore can apply to anyone and any type of culture. Secondly, all people and all crises are similar. Hence, James & Gilliland (2013) understands that these assumptions are seen as mutually exclusive.

 

The eclectic approach, according to James & Gilliland (2013) provide an opportunity to a number of approaches and theories, subsequently, it allows the opportunity of being able to assess the victim’s needs in order to apply and plan the appropriate techniques tailored to the person. The therapist, on the other hand, will be taking risks and will have the willingness to switch an approach to another technique even if the first had function.

 

However, the Interpersonal theory in essence explains that people can not sustain a personal state of a crisis for very long, if they really believe in themselves and in others. Having confidence, the person will become self-actualized and overcome the crisis (James & Gilliland, 2013).

Crandall, Parnell & Spillan (2014) explained that the fundamental goal of the crisis management team, CMT is to plan ahead for potential crises and manage those crises that eventually occur. Therefore, it will be looked upon in three aspects, crisis-response organizations and review their relationship between organizations.

 

Ethical and legal challenges.

Crandall, Parnell & Spillan (2014) provided an understanding of the importance of ethical and legal responsibilities and challenges when dealing with organizations and their cultural barriers. The ethical culture of the organizations most of time is being blemished because of the unethical behavior performed by its employees, and regardless of their written code of ethics. For example, unrealistic goals of organizations, may lead employees to unrealistic decision making. Therefore, employees may feel, that they should incur in unethical behavior to obtain the goal by undermining organizational procedures (Crandall, Parnell & Spillan, 2014).

 

On the other hand, ethical standards are not considered to have legal weight only, according to James & Gilliland (2013); even though these standards issues are focused more on guiding codes of conducts to the profession. Violation of these codes can and will lead any professional to be censure or may lose their license mandated by the profession’s ethics board.

 

According to Reyes & Jacobs (2006) explained that the process helps to ease and overcome multicultural barriers and challenges, such as, language, beliefs, logistics, and sustainability. Furthermore, it may reduce accusations of cultural insensitivity. An example of this may be consider when an organization does not belief in significant religious holidays, and their employees must present themselves to work, against their beliefs and the organization.

 

Organizations must develop standard ethical conduct guidelines, which must implement ethics trainings in order to highlight ethical issues and how they may react to the crisis (Crandall, Parnell & Spillan, 2014). Moral principles may have a vast and varied perception, organizations as well as first responders must be set aside their beliefs in order to reach and assist the crisis. Thus, encouraging coping behaviors consistent with the person's beliefs, and customs help ethics minorities understand the management and healing process (Reyes & Jacobs, 2006). Throughout the process of crisis management and the first responders, becomes imperative to comprehend what their role is in this process in order to provide the appropriate social support to the organization and its personnel in need.

 

In practice, according to Crandall, Parnell & Spillan (2014) there are several suggestions or principles that may better ethical culture codes that can improve drastically the counselor performance when there are multicultural challenges or barriers when managing and responding to crises. One of these suggestions may avoid, when an unethical behavior is discovered. In this case, the organization must respond immediately to correct the situation and discipline the person responsible for the behavior incur against the ethical guidelines codes.

 

Another suggestion to overcome behaviors that violate ethical, legal and multicultural challenges or barriers, is hiring a chief, officer or director of ethics. This person responsibilities as an officer, chief or director which would serve in top management or board of directors, who also will report to the maximum level of the organization whether this is a public or private one. This position will promote the ethical standards of the organization as well as its culture; ensuring the employees behavior along addressing their concerns and needs.

 

In a similar situation, Crandall, Parnell & Spillan (2014) suggested that managers, director or presidents should require to have realistic goals. These goals are well conceived, otherwise, unrealistic goals encourages unethical decision and therefore behavior among employees. Along this suggestion, top management or executive directors, may provide a hotline number and/or email in which employees have a person or department within their organization that they can trust and to whom they can report unethical behaviors or ethical violations maintain its confidentiality. This specific suggestion may help employees to report any type of unethical conduct that they or another employee may be facing.

 

Finally, ethical issues arisen within organizations because of weak ethical norms or non-existent codes. The landscape survey of organizations and industries must identify and uncover ethical weaknesses which are feebleness points within the system. As a result, the organizations and industries need to promote ideas within to build an improved ethical atmosphere. Ultimately, the organizations and industries in their learning stages may promote improving the ethical performance throughout the experiences of specific crisis events.

 

Description of a model to train counselors for a crisis.

In November, 2014, Dominican Republic, felt for the first time a terrorist bomb attack in the capital city trolley. As it was expected reactions of confusion among the civilians was observed, but, security and police were also confused and terrified. This event could not be happening in this paradise island. There were two victims one female that her burns were moderate and was send home, and the other male victim, was sprayed with some type accelerant and he was severely burned, and did not make it. Police Department took over a day to determine what type of attack was it, until they established without no doubts that it was a terrorist bomb. The Police Department only communicated to the responsible person to give up himself because he was caught in the security camera; or else to abstain himself of what would happened if they go out in his search. Two days after the person responsible for the death of the civilian decided to give himself up and was immediately legally processed and sentenced. He never gave a really reason of why he did the act. He received a sentence of 30 years in jail, without the possibility of parole.

 

According to White, Mazerolle, Porter & Chalk (2014) explained that comprehending the effectiveness of counter-terrorism efforts requires a conceptual framework for its intervention. The Australian National Counter-Terrorism Plan (NCTP) indicated that the framework establishes four categories of interventions: Legislative and Administrative, Prevention and Preparedness, Response and Recovery. All of these four categories use a theoretical different mechanism to have a reaction in pattern of terrorist activity.

 

Today, definitively, the Dominican Republic need to train their first responders and therapist in case of another terrorist attack before the second leaves a worst outcome. Prevention and preparedness is a key in saving more lives, including those who arrive first to respond the attack.

 

The crisis management plan should be evaluate at least twice a year adjusting to the possible changes in the environment and the level of knowledge of those directly involved in assisting the victims and the civilians that also need to be trained as they train anyone in case there is a fire. Who should they called? What should they do? Should they run, remain calm, or hide? Training becomes a major issue in the process of preparedness to survive. Authorities should be able to prepare civilians.

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