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History and development of TPB

2020-10-24 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --History and development of TPB ,文章讲述为了确定消费者对膳食补充剂的态度,计划行为理论(TPB)将被用作主要的理论框架。在这种情况下,TPB理论显示了人们如何选择他们的膳食补充剂以及他们在特定市场中的行为。


To determine the consumers’ attitudes towards dietary supplements, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) will be used as the main theoretical framework. In this case, the TPB theory shows how people choose their dietary supplement and how they behave in a certain market.

The Theory of Planned Behaviour helps us to understand how people change their behaviour patterns. It states that human behaviour is the result of deliberation and thoughts(Ajzen).

In 1975 and 1980, Ajzen and Fishbein proposed the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). It suggests that the intentions of behaviour functions are important beliefs about the probability that might cause the desired result(Fishbein and Ajzen).

According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1975), two sets of behavioural intentions are divided separately, which includes behavioural and normative.

The former affects people’s attitudes when implementing behaviour, while the latter impacts people subjectively when they do so(Fishbein and Ajzen).  The link between these two aspects can be affected by following situations including correspondence of how specific the measurement is on intention and behaviours, consistency of intentions between historical measurement and enactment of behaviour, as well as the level of control on purpose of a certain person(Madden, Ellen and Ajzen). According to this theory, individuals anticipate to perform behaviour under two circumstances: when a positive result is predicted and when they believe in the social pressure that doing so is important.

Later, Ajzen developed the TRA theory by adding the new concept ‘Perceived Behaviour Control’ (PBC) because he found that our behaviour is conducted under certain level of control rather than of absolute willingness(Ajzen). This developed into the modern form of the behaviour theory - Theory of Planned Behaviours. TPB asserts that the level of perceived behaviour control changes according to people’s belief in the resources and opportunities they own. It then suggests three kinds of beliefs that mainly influence people’s behaviour: behavioural beliefs (influence attitudes toward the behaviour), normative beliefs (constitute the underlying determinants of subjective norms), and control beliefs (provide the basis for perceptions of behavioural control)(Ajzen). The TPB assumes that intention does not arise out of an individual unless he/she sees the likelihood to perform, despite the fact of positivity and social impact on the outcomes of the behaviour(Ajzen). Such connection between intention and PBC further informs us of the association between PBC and behaviour(Jaxylykov). In sum, people’s intention of consumption is preceded by attitudes towards the behavior (ATB), subjective norm (SN) and perceived behavior control (PBC)(Ajzen).


Application of TPB

Through market research and empirical studies, it is quite obvious that the promotion of healthy eating should focus on the attitudes and PBC of consumers to boost such intentions(Conner, Norman and Bell). It also suggests that intentions are strongly predictive while perceived past behaviour becomes unrelated to healthy eating as stability of intention increased(Conner, Norman and Bell).  

Although the TPB will be applied in the following chapters as the framework of methodology, there are uncertainties on the exact form of the significant relations between behaviour beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms and PBC(Ajzen). In general, many studies related to healthy eating have applied the framework of TPB and find it very useful. Meanwhile, there are other theorists who have recognized PBC’s significance in predicting behaviour, such as Triandis, who disserted ‘operationalization of facilitating conditions’(Godin and Kok). Study also finds that the efficiency varies when it comes to prediction of behaviour in TPB, and factors like role beliefs and moral norms should be concluded in the model when researching health-related behaviours(Godin and Kok).

Literature Review

Dietary supplement (DS): definition, history, and regulations


According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2015), the dietary supplement is defined as a product, which contains one or more dietary ingredients, used for adding extra nutritional value to normal diet. The dietary ingredients included the such as vitamins, minerals, herb or other botanical, amino acid, a dietary substance for increasing the total dietary intake, and a concentrate, metabolite, constituent or extract. Normally DS have different forms, including capsules, soft gels, gel caps, liquids and powders (FDA, 2015).  

History and Regulations

Dietary supplements emerged to the global markets in the 1950s, and many countries have made specific policies on regulating the products. In the US, it has been more than 100 years since documented dietary supplement appears. As the market started to expand into the health care industry, authorities tried to restrict public access to these products by listing them into the category of medicines (Brownie, 2005). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s role as the principal authority was affected by the expansion of dietary supplements and the DSHEA was implemented in1994 as the main regulation frame (Brownie, 2005). In Australia, there was a state-based regulatory structure until the 1989 Therapeutic Goods Act replaced it with a united statutory guideline for trade and production of medicines (Brownie, 2005).


Factors affecting customers’ food choice

Awareness and knowledge

Cognitive structures

Knowledge of food terms and names could affect consumers’ purpose and willingness to purchase certain types of food. According to Asp (1999), inadequate awareness of what a certain term refers to might be the obstacle for individuals’ selection on the right food or supplement.

Demographic factors

Demographic concepts like income, gender or number of family members take up a large portion of factors that might affect food choices.


Families with lower income tend to spend more of their income on food than those with higher income, which makes household income a key factor other than a simple evaluation of nutrition (Keane & Willetts, 1994). The amount spent of food is also flexible for a family since those with lower income tend to save money by consuming less expensive food or let their children eat first. This leads to the phenomenon that despite low-income households want to buy healthy food or dietary supplies, they can’t afford the price because of the limited budget (Wiig Dammann & Smith, 2009).


It is worth noticing that nowadays, women are more aware of their food intake than men, which is affected by the idea that a slim body is more attractive. This phenomenon is quite obvious in Asia. Women who believe in the idea tend to eat less or even skip meals and the body slimming industry benefit from the spread of such concept (Keane & Willetts, 1994). Dieting is also a common practice among teenage girls in order to lose weight; some uses the healthy eating, while others simply stop taking their meals (Story, Neumark-Sztainer, & French, 2002).

Life style and habits

People in different age group have different reasons for choosing the food they eat. Common reasons for adolescents include hunger and food cravings, appeal of food, time and convenience, cultural influence, habits and beliefs (Neumark-Sztainer, Story, Perry, & Casey, 1999). For example, time and convenience influence adolescent food choices in a very direct way, especially when it comes to healthy eating (Story, Neumark-Sztainer, & French, 2002). By combining psychiatric values, economics, sociology and other topics with collected data, the classification systems of lifestyle can recognize different segments and behaviours of consumers (Asp, 1999).

This broad range of factors also has complex relations between each other.

Participants in a study suggest that they are willing to change eating habits if healthy food or supplements are more accessible, thus nurturing the habit of keeping a healthy diet for them (Neumark-Sztainer, Story, Perry, & Casey, 1999). This provides a possible solution when it comes to the marketing of dietary supplement because its main purpose is to help people intake the necessary healthy elements that they miss in daily life.  


Current state of DS in Chinese market compared to others

The common consumption of vitamin, mineral, and herbal products by the society shows that people are willing to care about their own body and health by making decisions on what dietary supplement to take (Brownie, 2005). In the EU market, multi-vitamins and multi minerals are most common dietary supplements, and their dominated status and it still growing (Stoimenova, 2010).



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