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Communications Between Native Speaker and Non-native Speakers Introduction

2020-10-12 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Communications Between Native Speaker and Non-native Speakers Introduction,文章讲述母语人士真的能在没有任何困惑的情况下听懂非母语人士的话吗?这是一个存在的现象,长期以来困扰着公众。随着世界经济文化的全球化,不同民族、不同母语、不同肤色的人们开始一起学习、工作、生活是一种自然的趋势。

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Can native speakers really understand non-native speakers without any puzzles? It is an existing phenomenon confuses the public for a long time. With the globalization of economy and culture of the world, it is a natural trend for people who have different nationalities, mother tongues and complexions begin to study, work and live together. In order to make it easier for communications and expressions, people will invariably choose one language as a main communication tool, and English becomes the ideal choice for most of the people. Probably because English is regarded as the most popular language used wildly in majority developed areas. As the result, many communications and dialogues that between native speakers and non-native speakers appears, arising the confounded phenomenon mentioned above. In order to better analyze this phenomenon, two significant theories have to be introduced first. The relevant theories are Nativist theory and Constructivist theory respectively. In my opinion, I believe that Nativist theory is more well-founded than Constructivist theory when we debate on this topic.

Identify the two theories

The most well-known constructivist theory is generated by professor Bruner, which is developed based on the study of cognition and produced an overall framework for instruction. Constructivist theory holds the four major points: (1) active tendencies towards learning, (2) the information could be grasped by the scholar squarely due to its feature of structuration, (3) knowledge structuration obtains an ability to create new thesis and blamelessly handle the information explosion (Delia, 1977). In the other word, Constructivist theory insists the viewpoint that knowledge and language own a nature of structure, which are more conducive to be spread, updated and exchanged (Delia, 1977). On the contrary, the ideas of Nativist theory are generally against with Constructivist theory. Nativist theory was put forward by Noam Chomsky, one of the most famous linguistics professors in 21st century. His theory mainly claims few rules in the language usage, and all opinions are based on the innate hypothesis as foundation. First of all, Chomsky’s Nativist theory contains the concept that infants are born with language acquisition devices, which is usually referred to as LAD (Delia, 1977). In addition, he generated a new comprehension that the only requirement for a child to discover a language system is to be contacted with the language in any ways. All the theories mentioned above are delivered by careful thinking and comparison. Chomsky’s Nativist theory successfully explains the circumstance that children sometimes create sentences and grammar they have never heard before, as well as the phenomenon that young kids are able to effortlessly acquire language in relatively short period of time. Besides, these two cases are not easily interpreted by constructivist theory. When it comes to our problematic phenomenon, communications between native speakers and non-native speakers, as far as I am concerned, Nativist theory possesses more advantages for us to demonstrate this issue.

Positive Argument based on Nativist Theory

The problematic phenomenon involves several puzzling questions. They can be generally concluded to pronunciation habits, syntax and grammar as well as vocabulary respectively. To begin with, it is not surprising for non-native speakers have odd accents when they speak the second language. Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes assumed that certain affairs are inborn, perhaps they take place with the flow regardless of environmental impacts. According to LAD theory, all children are capable of an instinctive mental capacity, which permits them to both learn and organize language (De Bot, 2007). When non-native speakers produce language, it is inevitable for them to speak not as correctly and fluently as native speakers. However, facts and experiences could prove the truth that accents will not be a barrier when people from different areas with different accents communicate together. When we reconsider the issue regardless of the factor that different mother languages, native speakers whose mother language is English have different accents depending on their growing-up regions. Nonetheless, there is no trouble for British people chatting with American people. It seems that we could attribute the situation of unimpeded communication to the inborn ability that automatic conversion of tones. One of viewpoints of Nativist theory claims that one always develops a language system actively and do not simply repeat the language when they hear. That is to say, native speakers own a special ability that they can consciously react response to their mother language no matter strange accents or intonations. When people use the same language grammar and sentence structures, they will have no obstacles when they communicate with each other. Thus, it is more effective to analyze the case by using Nativist theory.

There are three basic elements of a language: tune, vocabulary and grammar. Although the most significant part of daily communication is tunes, is to understand each other to meet the need of common demands. Vocabulary and grammar still share an equal importance in language study. How to find out a person using a second language instead of his mother tongue? In spite of the accent, the vocabulary he chose and the proficiency in grammar using can expose the truth. Native speakers have a certain sensitivity to the mother tongue, they can understand the emotional significance of every word hiding behind and usage scenarios. Therefore, it is liable for them to choose the most accurate and the most suitable context words whenever they write articles or chat with others in daily life. While, for non-native speakers, misnomers happen all the time. Chinese people sometimes speak English in the way when they speak Chinese. Translating directly without consideration of English grammar is the mistake they often make. For example, Chinese people say “Long time no see” as greetings, which means it’s been a while to see each other again. “Long time no see” is a sentence organized following the form of Chinese grammar, which is a typical “Chinglish”. Logically, native speakers would not be able to encounter the meaning of this sentence. However, the truth is native speakers can transfer “Chinglish” sentences into ordinary expressions automatically. And this specific capability should thank to the inherent perceived ability to mother language, which Nativist theory provides sufficient arguments to identify this case.

Concession Debate Constructivist Theory

Nevertheless, Nativist theory is not something like “one-size-fit-all”. There are still reasonable parts when we analyze the case by using Constructivist theory. That language is developed in pace with culture and technology is an undeniable fact to us all. Attendant phenomena appear, for instance, the new vocabulary and contemporary buzz words. Under normal circumstances, the popular buzzwords are almost compound words which are generated by native speakers using Constructivist theory. Native speakers usually obtain more extraordinary cognition and experience on their mother language than non-native speakers, thus those who are able to skillfully use mother tongue produce some compound words and buzzwords unintentionally. These buzzwords are often used in daily conversations and greetings. Hence, sometimes it is a little bit hard for non-native speakers to totally understand the meaning of what native speakers indeed says. However, these buzzwords will not be an obstacle to communications. Take some practical examples to illustrate more specifically, the word “textpetation” can be divided into “text” and “expectation”, which describes a mood after one sent a message looking forward for the reply like a silly girl (Rahimian, 2013). As another example, the word “smilence”, the combination of word “smile” and word “silence”, aims to picture a master mind that one knows everything but only expresses through a smile. These two buzzwords are both generated by logic of Constructivist theory. Though, the difference is the former word produced by native speakers and the latter one created by Chinese people. For Chinese, as second language users, it is not hard for them to capture the true meaning of “textpetation”. Additionally, the word “smilence”, usually classified as “Chinglish”, is not difficult for native speakers to comprehend. These Constructivist theory instances can also be as enough evidence to contribute the consequence that there is no trouble between non-native speakers and native speakers in some degree. Compared with the two theories, Nativist theory and Constructivist theory, the former can settle majority problems make sense. Nativist theory is more emphatic on language in the inborn talent, which clearly describes the understanding between native speakers and non-native speakers with linguistic differences.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, on the issue of communications between native speakers and non-native speakers, Nativist theory obviously occupies more advantages and owns more responsibilities than Constructivist theory does. Through comprehensive thinking and reasoning, Nativist theory can smoothly annotate the puzzling phenomenon on aspects of accents, grammar and vocabulary. Whereas, there are still unsolved problematic areas remained to be ongoing researched in the following days. Moreover, in order to draw a complementary and brand-new outcome, additional theories such as Minimalism and Optimality theory need to be taken into consideration. Thus, the study of the issue still have a long way to go.

References

Delia, J. G. (1977). Constructivism and the study of human communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech63(1), 66-83. 

De Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism language and cognition10(1), 7.

Lindemann, S. (2000). Non-native speaker" incompetence" as a construction of the native listener: attitudes and their relationship to perception and comprehension of Korean-accented English. University of Michigan.

Rahimian, M. (2013). Communication accommodation theory in conversation with second language learners (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba). 

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