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Probe Descriptivism

2020-09-16 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

Probe Descriptivism

Descriptivism,literature代写,作业代写,北美代写,代写

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Probe Descriptivism,文章讲述语法是我们表达自我能力的结构基础。 我们对它如何工作的了解越多,我们就越能监控我们和其他人使用语言的方式的意义和有效性。 它可以帮助提高准确性,发现歧义并利用英语中丰富的表达方式。 它可以帮助所有人-不仅是英语老师,而且是任何老师,因为所有的教学最终都必须掌握意义。


 Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. And it can help everyone--not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything, for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning. (David Crystal, "In Word and Deed." TES Teacher, April 30, 2004) Basically, we reckon that grammar refers to the potential internal language system in the brain as well as attempts to the clear coding and description of the language system. There are several kinds of grammar analysis method, and I’d like to choose two of them to illustrate and to make comparisons: descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar. Debates between descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar have been ongoing over for a long time. We’ve already learned that both kinds of grammar are language rules that govern the sounds, words, sentences in our language intuitively, of course, in different ways. Descriptive grammar focus on representing and explaining how a language is actually used by speakers and writers. It’s based on our daily life. What exist is reasonable. The intent of descriptive grammar is to posit explanations for the facts of language use, and there is no assumption of correctness or appropriateness. (Donald G. Ellis, From Language to Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999). And prescriptive grammar refers to a series of strict rules about the structure of a language and how it should be used, right or wrong, good or bad. Both types of grammar analysis method have their supporters and detractors.Descriptive grammar supporters deem that language should develop with the pace of human progress and the practicality of one language is more important. On the contrary, prescriptive grammar supporters think language should be treated officially. With bitter hatred, they criticize the abuse of descriptive grammar has ruined our language, especially the beautiful traditional language. As to me, I’m in favor of supporting descriptive grammar, although the two grammars have their own strengths and weaknesses. Just as William Somerset Maugham said in The Summing Up, It is necessary to know grammar, and it is better to write grammatically than not, but it is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated. Usage is the only test.


    As a linguistic theory, descriptive grammar came into existence in the 19th century and the early 20th century, which lag far behind the prescriptive grammar. Since prescriptive grammar originated in ancient Greek times of Plato and Aristotle and was used as the tool of enjoying literature. Grammarians prescribed the use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. How to be correct is the prior consideration. However, human communicated in the very beginning without written character. Descriptive language appeared long before written language let alone prescriptive language. In this respect, descriptive grammar has a much more profound history than prescriptive grammar. Where there are people, there is language, there is descriptive language. How can we change or abandon such a historic usage of language.


We always say advancing with the times, and without exception, language should be included. Our language should change and develop to adapt to the reality. Different countries have different languages, different languages have different features of their own and different patterns of manifestation. It seems narrow to let language be confined to stereotype. Even one concept of idea can be expressed in several different ways and that’s also the charm of language. Descriptive grammar just describes the practical use of language objectively and detailed and comply with its natural development.


What is language for? The more complicated and regular, the better? No, as far as I am concerned, it is an inappropriate idea. At the beginning, it was for the exchange of ideas through dialogue. It is the most basic function dating back to ancient times. What do you want, how do you think, why do you think. Living in a social environment, people get others’ idea through languages. For so many years, this function has always kept its best status. Therefore, descriptive grammar is the prior choice in order to play the biggest role of language. People talk and communicate every day every moment. On account of its frequent use, it is very easy to make a choice. We, of course, are inclined to employ a more convenient and simple way to communicate with people around us. For instance, you speak to one of your friend, “I’d like to know what you have been up to”. Both the speaker and the listener know the meaning of this sentence. And this conversation can carry on happily. But, what if your friend is a prescriptive grammarian? Well, he would tell you seriously, No, you are wrong! You should say, I’d like to know up to what you have been. Because there is a rule in prescriptive grammar, don’t end a sentence with a preposition. Oh my god! Can you imagine how troublesome every time before you talk! With the promotion of cultural and ideological progress, language also has another important role. When language became written texts, it is a way of conveying information. With the large amount of record data and the written languages, we human have glorious, splendid history and culture. In the same way with aforementioned spoken language, it is more important to have our later generations understand what we want to express, what we want to leave for them. Descriptive grammar is quite straightway to leave our history.


    In spite of criticism from many prescriptive supporters who claim that in modern linguistics, descriptive grammar is responsible for the decline in the development of standard language, there exist some schools of descriptive grammar. Structural grammar whose main viewpoint is: “as far as a language is concerned, speech is in the first place, namely, oral forms are prior to written ones. The description of a language ought to be given according to how it is spoken in reality, not how it must be spoken”. Functional grammar, founded by a British linguist called M.A.K. Halliday. He thought that language is a communicative tool and should be used on different occasions in different regions. Thus there is a need to study deeply various types of a language. And communicative grammar which was put forward by British linguist G. Leech and J.Svartvik. It takes concepts of thought as the core, and the features of various types of English (elevated, formal, neutral, informal, slang, written, spoken, polite, familiar, etc.) expressions on different occasions, pronunciation and intonation and so on. As long as human society exists, we must attach importance to descriptive language. Without it, communication can be difficult no matter it is in the area of spoken or written language.

 

Works Cited

[1] David Crystal. In Word and Deed. TES Teacher, April 30, 2004.

[2]William Somerset Maugham. The Summing Up. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999.

[3]Leech,G. And Svartvik, J. A communicative Grammar of English. Pearson Education .2003.

[4]Donald G. Ellis. From Language to Communication..Lawrence Erlbaum Associates    Inc.1999.


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