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Multi - Angle history, a true

2020-07-27 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Multi - Angle history, a true,文章讲述我们许多人可能还记得克里斯托弗·哥伦布(Christopher Columbus)踏上西印度群岛的第一步,那是美国的辉煌发现。但是,我们几乎没有注意到,发现一词巧妙地传达了历史作家的观点,在这种情况下是欧洲人。确实,所有主流历史资料都是在一定时期内由胜利者(征服者)撰写的。因此,当试图从失败者,被征服者的角度审视历史时,它会带给我们不同的观点。

Multi - Angle history, a true

Many of us may remember the time when Christopher Columbus took his first step in the West Indies as the glorious discovery of America. Yet, what we hardly notice is that the word discovery subtly conveys the point of view of the history writer, in which case were the Europeans. It may be true that all mainstream historical materials are written by the winner, the conqueror in a certain period of time. Thus, it leads us to a different perspective when trying to examine history through the point of view of the defeated, the conquered.

This was the essential concept raised by Enrique Dussel, an Argentine-Mexican liberation philosopher. In his article, Was America Discovered or Invaded? (Dussel, 126-34), he discussed Europeans’ entering to the American continent in two separate point-of-views, the terms of which he crowned as from above and from below. From above, in this case refers the point of view of the Europeans, the initiator of the act. While from below, represents the vision of the original inhabitants of the continent, the American Indians (126-34).

According to Dussel, the claim that put forwarded by historian Edmundo O'Gorman stating the European navigators invented America was preposterous. The idea of invention applies only if the object was previously inexistent, while this was obviously not the case for the American continent. In comparison to invention, discovery of America was “slightly more positive” (Dussel, 126-34), yet remains European egocentric. Because the discovery of America implies that the natives were regarded as objects with no sense, no rational feelings, and merely upon the European lords had assigned meanings to the natives and their culture that they began to assert significance in the European civilization. This, in Dussel’s opinion, leads to an incomplete, or even biased view of the real historical events.

To avoid prejudiced view of the historical facts, one may attempt to look at the past events from the Native Americans point of view, which, according to Dussel, would be from below. In this part of his argument, Dussel raised a few examples, including Tupac Amaru, an Inca rebel, and Montezuma, the emperor of Mexico (126-34). To them, the faces, pets and firearms of the Europeans were unfamiliar, and all of which were stepping into their territory without invitation, nor permission. Confusion arose among the original inhabitants. And with limited understanding, some natives even worshiped the intruders in awe: “This initial encounter created feelings of expectation, of unease, of admiration. (Dussel, 126-34)” The American Indians exhibited such innocence that they could not have foreseen the Europeans intention. The relations between the Europeans and the American Indians quickly evolved after their first encounter, and soon the natives who strived for freedom and liberation were tormented, dispossessed, and slayed by their mis-regarded gods.

Dussel’s argument was well established up to this point, as two vastly diverged sets of opinions and emotions had surfaced through the same historical period. He then went on discussing the process and the feasibility of historical indemnification. To Dussel, a proper indemnification seems far from possible, as the damage done to the American Indians were not merely insult, but also practical oppression and humiliation, some of which acts are still being conducted. However, he also mentioned, if a decent indemnification were to occur, a view of historical events from below must be taken (126-34).

Mark Twain once wrote, “The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice” (392). What Twain suggested coincides perfectly with Dussel’s theory. The story of the magnificent discovery and the great conquest of America have been spread across the globe, without too many eyebrows risen to question how the American Indians must have experienced. People are used to listen to the story told by the victors, the conquerors, that they so rarely raise suspicion to the actual details of the events. Eventually, history loses its double-sided justice, and becomes a prejudiced heroic tale.

One can be fairly certain to say that no colonization ever took place in peace, and the losing side always had to sacrifice something precious of their own. Be it a discovery, an intrusion, an invasion or else, successful colonization ultimately ends up with the foreign culture devours most of the native culture. Given people’s reluctance to change and innate preservation to their own culture, colonization almost necessarily leads to rebellion and uprising. In the case of the American Indians, their rebellion went on for over centuries, and even now revolts still occur from time to time in their pursuit for liberation (Dussel, 126-34). In the exhaustingly long process, it would be safe to assume that countless of native fighters must have sacrificed their lives, and women being taken against their will to become servants to the foreign families. Those who survive the rebellion are forced to adapt to the new culture, new religion. This process, to the Europeans back then, was an evangelization, an expansion of civilization. However, no one will ever be able to discover, let alone to recover, the brilliant cultural essence of the American Indians that are forever lost. One might figure that the natives will always have offspring as long as genocide does not take place, and their culture will be passed on. Yet, tormented, traumatized, without freedom of speech, and worst of all, losing faith in their own ethnicity, one can be surprised at how fast a culture could fade through history.

In attempt to examine the history from below, the massacred and the traumatized crowd may lead to fragmented record of historical statement. And for the same reason that the history of the conqueror side present prejudice, the conquered side of the story may be biased as well. It is said that there were over 1500 witnesses to the assassin of Lincoln, yet no two of the descriptions match exactly (Moat). A great triumph to the victor may very well be a horrific loss to the defeated. It is only when the two sides of statements are pieced together, that we begin to see the true picture of the history. Neither side must be neglected. That being said, gaining awareness of the actual historical events may not help to make the wrongful past right. Nevertheless, the future generations can make necessary amends to the wounded party, make an endeavor to recover the lost arts, and most importantly, learn from the past without being blind-sighted or misguided.

In this world, where we strive for cultural diversity, we ought to make one desperate attempt at preserving the original native cultures around the world. And it starts with listening to the story of the “conquered” side, the story from below.

 

Work Cited

Dussel, Enrique. "Was America Discovered of Invaded?" Concilium 220 (1988): 126-34. Print.

Twain, Mark. Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World. New York: AMS Press, 1971. 392. Print.

Moat, Adrian, dir. Killing Lincoln. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2013. Film. 22 Sep 2014.

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