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Talking about the crime and ethnicity of African Americans from the historical master narrative

2020-07-15 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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下面51due教员组为大家整理一篇优秀的代写范文- Talking about the crime and ethnicity of African Americans from the historical master narrative.,供大家参考学习。这篇文章讲述的是在美国,有色人种的高犯罪率和高监禁率是历史讨论中非常重要和严重的问题。但是,使用不同的历史叙事方法,往往会导致对同一问题的看法有所不同。本文将结合历史大师的叙述对非裔美国人的犯罪和种族进行讨论,并参考米歇尔·亚历山大(Michelle Alexander)的文章《新吉姆·克劳和艾娃·杜韦尔奈(Ava DuVernay)的电影13th”。

Talking about the crime and ethnicity of African Americans from the historical master narrative

      The high crime rate and high imprisonment rate of the colored people in the U.S. are very important and serious issues in the historical discussion. However with the use of different approaches of historical narratives, it can often lead to some difference in the view towards the same issue. In this article, it is to have a  Discussion of Criminality and Race of African Americans from the historical master narratives with a reference to Michelle Alexander’s article entitled The New Jim Crow and Ava DuVernay’s movie 13th.

        In Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow and Ava DuVernay’s 13th , both of them present a fact and discuss a central topic: criminal justice system is not just at all but full of discrimination. More than 1 in 14 black people of the Americans violated the drug laws and was behind the bar, but the number of white in the United States is 1 in 106(Strom,and Sanchez, 81). Thus, the fact of a significant increase in the number of African American prisoners in the United States is showing justice system and strict incarnation policy is in favor of the white people. Although African Americans account for a small percent of the country's total population, a large number of the country's criminals are blacks. Just as Michelle Alexander wrote, the number of colored people who are convicted crimes related to drug are disproportional(Strom,and Sanchez, 80).  The film's historical image is to some degree based on the image depicted in Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow. The film's main content is that since the founding of the country, in which the first half tells the story of imprisoned African Americans; the latter half exposes the prison industry; and at last settled on the 13th amendment. According to Amendment 13 of United States Constitution : Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction(Strom,and Sanchez, 73). It means that everyone is equal, except for criminals. This could be a good example of rejection of criminality and race. But in fact "criminals" have become an excuse for racial discrimination, and an new reason of slavery, by capturing colored people to deprive them of their rights, to limit their freedom. 

This is the main structure of it. This result is considered to be closely related to unfair treatment of minority or disadvantaged groups, especially blacks in the criminal justice system in terms of the enforcement, prosecution, conviction and sentencing of criminals. There are obvious racial discrimination in the drug offenses.  Both of them are about mass incarceration and argue that this mass incarceration is caused by racial discrimination in the United States. 

      However, a close review of how they present and prove the fact of unfair treatment of criminality in terms of race is problematic, showing one limitation of  historical master narratives. The facts are presented in an extremely similar manner by Michelle Alexander and Ava DuVernay in their narrative, which leads readers to ponder over the rule of historical master narratives. This narrative method, with strong tendency in the process of narrative is simply to explain the historical events based on the existing laws that this narrative has already informed of the readers . In the case of Michelle Alexander and Ava DuVernay, it is to view racism against the colored people, especially those of African descent from the historical context and the current context at the level of the judicial and institutional aspects of the United States. But unfortunately, the author’s reasoning process is not rigorous. The lack of discussion of other factors in the argument, including the polarization between the rich and the poor, the proliferation of drugs, and the lack of cross-certification of international law. Although the whole film has a clear tendency to touch the relationship between capital and power, it finally gave up it and returned to the demands of black power and the slightly weak complaints of current system(DuVernay). And in the ending part of the Michelle Alexander’s article, there are also a lot of extreme cases in which those black persons are treated in a very unfair way(Strom,and Sanchez, 84).  Thus, in those two narrative, there is a lack of mentioning and an in-depth study of why black people use drugs or sold drugs at the first place. On the contrary, it is always focusing on the complaints of black as a victim. Thus, the logic of the film and writing is problematic: the argument seems to be that odd high mass incarceration of US prisoners and the rapid expansion in recent decades in which the black constitutes a large part is only a result of discrimination and persecution from white towards black people. In the movie, after a careful editing of the interview and a lot of historical material research, it is find some extreme examples to prove that black prisoners are innocent, and then the media, politicians, big companies are all guilty. In the case of law enforcement, the police are also more likely to like to ban drugs in black communities and black streets in the center of the city, but are reluctant or unable to ban suburban white drug traffickers(Strom,and Sanchez, 81). By this, it is to maintain their own point of view but it is only the own point of view of colored group without giving any consideration of whether a black person is really committed a specific crime. Therefore, the problem of criminality and race they present is real, but because the non objective and limited point of view and narrative way of the film, especially the choice of black people to tell their own difficulties encountered, it heavily influenced the objectiveness of article and movie. Thus, their narrative has shown drawbacks of historical master narratives of criminality and race in the U.S.

      At last, it is noted that despite the limitation of historical master narratives reflected in the discussion of Michelle Alexander and Ava DuVernay, there is a presentation of differentiated criminality among races from a historical and social perspective. Any narrative must contain a certain attitude. And the subjective is not the only criterion for judging those two narratives about race, especially in the case of a social problem. Although it is not surprising that the crime rate of the blacks is higher than that of white people, it is strange that there is such a large-scale and abnormal prison system and the odd high percentage of black prisoners. Those two narratives with the guideline of  historical master narratives is successful as it allows to reveal the origin of racial discrimination in history and the distribution of  the real benefits of current times in the prison system. Under the beautiful slogan of law and order such as Amendment 13 of United States Constitution , it is concealing a long-standing pattern of discrimination and interest. But in Michelle Alexander’s article, it focused on how supreme court maximize racial discrimination, the role of discretion of justice system in drug problem, and even unconscious cognitive bias towards the black and their relation with drugs (Strom,and Sanchez, 83, 84). The process of proof is clear, and the argument is sufficient to prove this in those two narratives about race and criminality, about which make people are very convinced, so as to achieve a effective point of view. Regardless of the past blatant enslavement and isolation or implicit commercial and legal operation now to carry out the discrimination in the justice system, it can not be denied that the white people still manage to enjoy privilege in the drug issues as a result of their color and maintain the strong position compared to the colored people. In the film, the editing montage and the interview of some black people are incredibly thought-provoking and shocking. This effectiveness to a certain degree relies on the breadth of a series of materials gathered in a highly logical and organized manner from the perspective of the black people used by those two narratives.

    To sum up, Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow and Ava DuVernay’s 13th , both present a fact of discrimination within the criminal justice system from a historical and social perspective of the black people, but it also constitutes a shortcoming of historical master narratives: lack of objectiveness in the process of argument as a result of strong tendency in favor of the black people and lack of voices of other side.

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