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Curiosity and complexity in translation

2020-05-23 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Curiosity and complexity in translation。本文讲述人种志学描述了一种常见情况,通常发生在我们的日常生活中,尤其是当我们长大时。幼儿通过这种方式学习成年人的语言。换句话说,民族志学有一些共同点。但是,从字面上看,它是令人惊讶的复杂和抽象,这要求人们从秘鲁库斯科的发现开始。这是几个世纪前被西班牙人征服的地方。一位学者(理查德·皮特施曼(Richard Pietschmann))发现了一篇稿件,其内容比发现本身有趣。手稿用两种语言写得很长。一种是他们的母语,称为盖丘亚语,另一种是不合语法的西班牙语。标题是《第一纪事》和《善治》。普拉特(Pratt)撰写了一篇名为接触区的艺术的文章,从他特别的语言学观点中发现了一些有意义的东西,并仔细研究了该手稿的内容。普拉特认为,这本有趣的手稿的作者瓜曼·波马(Guaman Poma)用他的话语显示了征服和帝国的影响。它最重要的特征是他对印加血统的骄傲与对基督教的采用相结合。

 

Auto-ethnography describes a common situation which usually happens in our daily life, especially when we grow up. Young children learn languages of adults’ world in this way. In other words, there are some points in common with auto-ethnography. However, it is surprisingly complex and abstract from a literal view point, which requires people to start from a discovery in Cuzco, Peru. It is a place once conquered by Spanish a few centuries ago. A scholar (Richard Pietschmann) discovered a manuscript whose context was more interesting than the discovery itself. The manuscript is very long written in two languages. One is their indigenous language called Quechua and another one is ungrammatical Spanish. Its title is The First New Chronicle and Good Government. Pratt, having written an essay named “the Art of Contact Zone”, found something significant from his especially linguistic viewpoint and researched the context of this manuscript carefully. In Pratt’s opinion, the author of this interesting manuscript, Guaman Poma, displayed the impact of conquer and empire in his words. The most important character of it is the combination of his proud of Inca descent and adoption of Christianity.

This manuscript is a letter to the king and divided into two parts. The first part is named “New Chronicle”, which is also the archetype of auto-ethnological text, drawing all our attention. A chronicle was the tools of Spanish to prove their American conquest and usually used by the official document. However, Poma portrayed a new world in “New Chronicle”. In his letter, the indigenous people shared the glory of god with these European conquerors, even having an intent to replace them. Cuzco, located in South American, replaced Jerusalem and became the center of the Christian world. Amerindians had blood relationship with these Europeans for their ancestors were also Adam and Eve. Since the history of Andean was divided into five parts, Poma linked it with five ages of Christian history and made the whole society closer to the traditional European viewpoint. Besides, he constructed an encyclopedia of Inca and pre-Inca history and combined the traditions and details from their own customs or words of elders. What a funny story made up by this Amerindian! It is precisely identifying the character of this item, auto-ethnography, and exemplified it perfectly.

The author of this manuscript, Poma, was an indigenous Andean and he learned how to write from his brother, a mixed-blood who accessed religious education from a Spanish father. Thus he was a special person influenced by two distinguished cultures. He described the society of themselves in the conquerors’ way spontaneously. In Pratt’s view, ethnographic texts are the imaginations of these European conquerors, whereas auto-ethnographic texts come from the ideas of conquered people themselves. They got information from European conquerors as well as their own traditions positively or negatively. Then impacted by the environment, the works which reflect their ideas, are presented as a mixture of cultures from outsiders and insiders. It is safe to say that auto-ethnographic works absorb the conquerors’ customs or idioms of European metropolitans, according to description of Pratt’s work “the Art of the Contact Zone”. Some European idioms were accepted and accompanied with indigenous elements to form auto-ethnographic texts while others was swept out. Finally, the formation of these new works influence people’s understanding of situations of the time.

This kind of works, auto-ethnological texts, have no determined audiences. They might be metropolitan audiences or natives from their own community. It is natural for them to get into the dominant culture by speculating from a metropolitan’s viewpoint. These people such as the author Poma and so on represent the first generation influenced by new changes and intend to involve in a current and dominant culture. The elders of Poma also worked together with him and played an important role in his daily life. The whole circumstance makes up a contact zone. As conquered people, Poma held a mild opinion toward conquerors and wanted to benefit each other. He blamed the greedy Spanish whereas mimicking their language at the same time. This is a character of auto-ethnological texts and dynamics of languages and representations in contact zone.   

After reminding and explanation of auto-ethnography, people will wonder the purpose and method of application of this analytical tool naturally. Pratt broke up the community of imagination and applied the item “auto-ethnography” to show a dynamical model of contact, collision, and involvement between different cultures. He also led people to recognize the necessary of these erratic things through contradicting our common sense in some ways. Readers experience the feeling of authors and understand the starting point of authors. Then an article, Translating and Translation: Finding the Beginning, written by Alberto Alvaro Ríos, is going to be an instance of an auto-ethnographic text.

At the first glace, the author clarified his identification, a person who has dual languages or more. He began his childhood from a place located at the boundary of America and Mexico. Besides, his mother and father grew up in different countries and were cultivated in different traditions. Thus the author himself played a role in the contact of two cultures which is similar with that of Poma. We obviously cannot get the exact idea about Poma and rely on the analysis of Pratt. The confusion of audiences is also reminded by Pratt and explained quickly in the following paragraphs. However, people will be puzzled for a long time when they read this article. Despite only three pages, the article have cost much more time than that people spend reading several pieces of newspaper, especially for ones who lack necessary background about a Mexican-style communication. Thus it is necessary for us to interpret the essay by applying Pratt’s tools.

The author leads us from the research of scholars to his personal understanding. Linguists function as an open word as well as their scientific conclusion. From the source of this phenomenon, Rios uses the basic words to eliminate the doubt of audiences. “Linguists, by using electrodes on the vocal cords, have been able to demonstrate that English has tenser vowels than, for example, Spanish. The body itself speaks a language differently, so that moving from one language to another is more than translating words. It's getting the body ready as well. It's getting the heart ready along with the mind.” Then he expands the scope of scholars’ conclusion that language transformations also accompany the physical changes to translating work. People can list other scientific articles opening with this strategies because of its effect, and the author also applies this technique. In my opinion, nevertheless, Rios presents his idea in the way same as which Poma wrote his “New Chronicle”. Poma quoted Catholic Bible whereas Rios used the conclusion of linguists. Why should they depend on these things? In fact, they are the people belonging to a fraction of mainstream, which need the tools of dominant groups to justify themselves. In this circumstance, Poma thought of Bible and Rios chose linguistics. By displaying the familiar context, it is more likely for the mainstream to accept the reasonability of their ideas. When someone who stands at the edge of a field, wants to introduce something new, the tactic will help a lot. Obviously Rios also make full use of it.

Following the introduction of the theory and the author’s background, stories begin. But Rios emphasizes his personal understanding before stories in order to explain it more clearly. As the person living in a confused environment, he regards translation as an important part of his life and his experience makes dual languages learning important. More information and traditions of others’ life involved into his life by dual languages as well as the collision between these languages. His thought and recognition of his growing environment also become more reasonable. The application of a metaphor helps his expression about his condition. There is no doubt that an eye can observe the world, but two lenses create a better sight for the observers. As what Rios says in the article: “The apparatus, the binoculars, are of course physically clumsy - as is the learning of two languages, and all the signage and so on that this entails - they're clumsy, but once put to the eyes a new world in that moment opens up to us. And it's not a new world at all - it's the same world, but simply better seen, and therefore better understood.” A new world appears although it is the same world. Rios gives a good explanation for following stories. We can find similar narrative from Poma’s words. All of us know that Poma lived in the dominant of the Spanish and a new era began for the invasion of the Spanish. It is sad but not choice. It is curious that Poma put the Indian into the story of Bible and even arranged a position for their Indian ancient among the children of Adam and Eva. Rios also wrote in this way, placing the Mexican tradition into Western dominant ideology and considering them as the same world. It is, actually, the personal illusion of the author and can be described as a deep gap between two cultures. The clumsy is easy to understand because a writer writes and speak in English intending to understand the tradition of his ancients who speak Mexican basically.

Several stories follow these declarations. The first one is easy to understand and the author tells us about the different ideas about a word. After the painting, his mother knew the actual meaning of limon from a Mexican view point. The latter one is also a narrative about the illegal action and different interpretation from two sides. However, when it comes to the story related the author, it will put audiences into the confusion. A non-gifted student asked the author two questions in an offensive way whereas the author replies to it peacefully. Without much explanation, the author understood him regardless the offenses from other and was touched by his new realization about translation. It really confuses audiences, including me. In this situation, exploration about the essence of the article is an efficient way to solve the problem. For instance, “He nodded his head. You really like this poetry shit, he asked.” In a common communication, “shit” usually expresses an unrespectable attitude and I even have a prospect of fight. In addition, the following sentence is “And then he followed with the very best thing I could have hoped for. So, how many fights you had?” Obviously a storm is coming. But the author realized that he was making an equation. Therefore, audiences should be aware of the catch phrase, shit. It might be used as a pet in the circle of non-gifted students and does not mean any rudeness. It is a typical example in a contact zone and Pratt as well his method remind audiences the source of the misunderstanding. In the final part, a personal growing experience of people living in collisions such as Rios and Poma makes confusions. In order to understand it, the awareness of the existence of contact zone is very essential and plays a key role for readers.

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