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The Positive Way of China’s Joining The WTO

2020-05-18 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

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下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文-The Positive Way of China’s Joining The WTO。本文的主要目的是说明世界贸易组织自2001年加入以来对中国的发展所产生的积极影响。尽管中国加入世贸组织在国内外引起了对其利弊的激烈争论,但经过十年的发展,其利弊最终被证明是大于弊的。通过文献资料分析,中国加入世贸组织的积极影响可以归纳为:一是关税的降低可以降低企业的介入成本,促进中国的出口;二是要求中国为加入世贸组织做出一些改变,第三,中国从世贸组织获得了更多的技术和就业机会。

Introduction

The year 2001 was of remarkable significance to China. All the painstaking efforts that were made in the process of 15-year-long negotiations paid off with the news that China’s application for joining the World Trade Organization at last got passed. As a matter of fact, as early as in the year 1947, China was one of the original contracting nations of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was the predecessor of the now World Trade Organization (WTO). Due to the fact that there was no mechanism to supervise both the cooperation and negotiation inside the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), China’s connection with GATT was soon put to an end in the year 1949 as the Chinese nationalist government in Taiwan made its withdrawal of membership from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the year 1978, a key feature in China, Deng Xiaoping, a Chinese communist statesman, made an important and visionary decision to carry out the Reform and Opening Up policy, which marked China’s entry to a period of trade liberalization. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping and its vigorous policy, China has made significant progress on economic development and other social undertakings. Driven by the urge to further develop its economy and to promote communications between China and other countries, the Chinese government felt that it was high time that they should resume their status in GATT. Therefore, they first formally sent an application for getting back its position in GATT as a contracting nation in 1986. The year 1986 marked the beginning of 15-year-long hard negotiation between Chinese government and GATT.

It was not until the year 1995 that China had made headway as the GATT renamed itself the World Trade Organization (WTO) and unavoidably changed some of its policies. Seeing the formation of WTO as an opportunity, Chinese government made a request that its status should be changed from Working Party to Full Membership. Then a new round of negotiation started again.

Eventually in the year 2001, China was unanimously approved of the request to enter the WTO by the member countries of WTO. This marked the end of a total of 15 years’ negotiation and the Chinese people from all walks of life were exceedingly excited at hearing such cheering news.

Readers may wonder why the Chinese government so unswervingly clung to the idea of joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) or the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) before 1995, that they spared no efforts to negotiating with other member nations for as long as 15 years. As a matter of fact, the World Trade Organization today enjoys a membership of one hundred and sixty member nations, making it one of the largest trade organizations in the whole world. Is it really worthwhile for the Chinese government to suffer a 15-year-long negotiation simply for the purpose of joining the WTO? And after its accession to the WTO, does China meet with its expectation of further developing its economy? The answers to these questions must be ‘yes’. There is no denying the fact that joining the WTO really exerts many positive influences on China’s development.

The Costs of Involving Business Lowered

China’s accession to WTO lowers its cost of involving business because of a reduction in tariffs placed on products imported into China and products exported from China. This kind of reduction in the cost of involving business can be explained by looking at the development of the export industries in China all these years since its accession to WTO. These lowering tariffs are agreed by Most Favored Nation Clause. Most Favored Nation Clause indicates that membership of World Trade Organization which is given most favored nation status, is entitled to such specific trade advantages as a reduced tariff. More importantly, this MFN clause plays an important role in lowering the risk of discrimination against Chinese exports in other WTO member states, which means that it provides a platform to welcome fair play.

With the patron of reduced tariffs, the cost of both import and export are somehow lowered. Thus, such reduction in tariffs gives a boost to China’s export industries in particular. In general, net exports accounted for 7.7% of China’s GDP in the year 2007 and the data increased from 2.6% in 2002 (Chen, 2009). And by the year 2013, China was credited to be the largest exporting countries in the world with a total amount of 1.904 trillion dollars and had many partners, including countries like Japan, South Korea and the United States(Said, 2013).The tendency of growing export industries can be reflected more vividly in sectors like textile, metals and machinery, as William Barringer put it, who serves as international trade director and senior partner at Curtis Mallet-Prevost Colt & Mosle LLP (He, 2012). For instance, the textile industry seized the opportunity of the elimination of quantitative restrictions on exports since the year 2005, resulting in a growth of 220 percent between the year 2001 and 2007. Apart from the reduction in tariffs, the MFN status mentioned above is also conducive to the prosperity of China’s export industries. As a result, China has risen to the largest exporter of goods in the year 2009, only eight years after its entry to WTO in the year 2001.

International Trade Liberalization Gets Promoted

In order to meet with the requirements for joining the WTO, China has made some far-reaching decisions and this act serve as a foundation for the liberalization of international trade. The core of trade liberalization lies in free flow of goods and services from one country to another one. To make the free flow of goods and services operate more fluently, China has made painstaking efforts to weaken its state-run enterprises. This act aims to loosen Chinese government’s control over business decision making, which previously takes consideration into political factors but now only into commercial performance. And on the other hand, more private enterprises are given the right to compete fairly in the market. For example, non-state enterprises were given some trading rights in sectors like agriculture (Fung, 2005). In this way, fiercer competition is formed and thus the efficiency and quality of economy is significantly enhanced, which in return promots the process of liberalization of trade.

Chinese government as well removes approximately 7000 tariffs, quotas and trade barriers. The removal of tariffs, quotas and trade barriers provides both domestic enterprises and foreign enterprises with more opportunity to compete and accelerate the free flow of goods and services between China and other foreign countries. Besides, Chinese government has agreed to increase transparency of information and law, which is required by the Protocol of Accession, so as to create a better economy environment for both foreign enterprises and domestic enterprises. To implement the requirement of increasing transparency, China has improved and perfected the existing trade law and regulations so as to make it more WTO consistent and increase its efficiency. Besides, the Chinese government should give more approaches to enterprises about how the legislation is made (Boden, 2012). And it was partly because of China’s progress in increasing transparency that attracted an inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) to China. Before China’s accession to WTO, the foreign direct investment inflows were large but unfortunately in the face of stagnation by 2000 due to some kinds of restrictions and more commonly the government corruption (Chen, 2009). Things began to work better with the prevalence of transparency since China’s accession to WTO. The stagnation in FDI inflows was put to an end as the fact that from the year 2001 to 2002, as there was an increase of 30% in foreign direct investment (Fung, 2005). All these measures play a role for stimulating the free flow of goods and services, thus the international trade liberalization is significantly promoted within China.

Technologies and Job Opportunities Acquired

WTO also brings China with high technology and more jobs opportunity. In 2003, two years after its accession to WTO, China joined Information Technology Agreement. The Information Technology Agreement is of great importance to China, in that the ultimate goal of the agreement is to promote tariff-free information technologies. China has finally benefited from ITA as it became the largest factory of information technology products in the world. More importantly, China also makes progress in its own technology. The progress in technology gives birth to Chinese technology brand, such as Lenovo, Huawei and ZTE (“WTO Fuels Fast Growth,” 2009). These three Chinese brands still take up a large percentage of Chinese market share. Besides, some high-tech products perform well in terms of export. In the year 2000, high-tech products only accounted for 17% of the total exports and the figure rose to 32% in the year 2009 (Chen, 2009). From this point of view, the inflow of technologies does boost China’s export industries to some extent.

In terms of employment, with the inflow of foreign direct investment which is driven by increasing transparency in China, more foreign invested firms were set up and therefore 11 million jobs were created by these foreign invested firms between 2001 and 2006 (Chen, 2009). In this way, more job opportunities are available to Chinese workers. Thanks to these job opportunities, many people are more possible to find a position to feed their families, which eases the pressure in employment. When the basic need of Chinese people is no longer a pressing problem to these families, they have more money to spend on things they have been desire for. In this way, consumer’s buying power is improved, which accelerates the flow of goods and money between businessmen and consumers. This accelerative flow of goods and money provides a forum for the development of economy in China. When China’s economic development is advancing progress, more investments will be made and therefore, maybe more job opportunities will be available to more people, which is really a virtuous cycle for China. In a word, China’s entry to WTO not only helped improve its technology level, but it also succeeded in creating more jobs.

Conclusion

All of the evidences above have served as a proof of the positive way of China’s joining WTO since its accession in the year 2001. The most prominent one is the reduction in the costs of involving business owning to a decreased tariff. Such lowering of the costs gives a boost to China’s export industry and as a result, by the end of 2009, China has ranked the largest exporter around the world. Joining the WTO is also conducive to promote the liberation of international trade within China, because China has taken many measures and made changes to meet the basic requirements of entering the WTO. WTO also serves as a platform, in which member nations are capable of more communications. In this way, many technologies have been introduced into China and with these technology, more factories have been built up, making more job opportunities have been available in China. In a word, China has made a wise decision to join the WTO and this decision is very likely to benefit Chinese people from generation to generation.

 

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