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carbon energy systems

2020-03-26 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Essay范文

无煤土地的发现使更多的土地被用来提供能源,但同时也增加了对生产原材料和农作物的需求。此外,人们在选择居住地时也较少受到限制。对于民主的群众政治运动来说,煤炭的出现带来了民主,石油的使用在一定程度上使政府摆脱了劳工运动的束缚,但需要采取行动控制石油的收益。

 

The discovery of coal free more land which was used to provide energy, but meanwhile increase the demands for producing raw material and crops. Besides, people have less restriction when choosing residence. As for democracy mass political movements, the appearance of coal bring out democracy and the use of oil make government free from labor movements to some extend but need to take action to control the prize of oil to make profits.

 

From around 1800, human beings has begun to utilize coal to obtain energy. At the early stage, owing to the inefficiency of steam engine, the energy used to exploit miner is larger than the energy got from coal. But with the advent of Newcomens atmospheric-pressure steam engine, the utilization level of coal increases substantially.[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.] The pursuit of new energy made human beings have diverse choice of place of residence. In the old days, people had to live the places where is close to water, pastureland and large area of woodland to ensure the basic living. The using of coal largely decline the requirements of condition of the place desirable to live. The population can be concentrated without the reason of agriculture and the size is not more restricted by energy supply.

 

Providing fuel needed for life is just a small proportion of energy released by coal. To make full use of it, sufficient industrial raw material is needed, that means lager areas of lands are needed to produce the material. Besides, lager number of workers are put into the production. Consequently, more food has to supply to them and the lands used to grow crops are needed. Those areas with woods for the demands of fuel before are transformed to become farmland. Besides, if the underground is detected having coal or oil, the surface will be destroyed to obtain it, which will bring lots of damage to vegetation. For example, in Tampico, Huasteca, rainforest becomes oil field, hundreds of thousands of trees are cut down. The substantial energy getting from coal let industry a big progress. The expansion of industrial area is in a state of exponential growth. Take tropics as an example, in 1900, there is an area of 17,569 acres but add up to 94,736 in 1921.

 

Democracy is followed by industrialization, which comes from the organic form of energy. Due to the difficulties of emulation and depending on not be imitated of coal-based energy system, Europe, where was the first to use coal, cannot only rely on trade to gain manufacturing raw material. Therefore, colonialism appears. Europe replaced the local population with slave and employed labor force to gain sugar and cotton from colony and came up with private ownership of land to solidify their right.[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.] Afterwards, some peoples treasure accumulated and have more discourse power. This is regarded as the beginning of democracy though the governor was thought to have oligarchy. By the 1870s, many unities appeared in Europe and Near east. However, the polarization of wealth arose mass political movements and new form of politics took shape[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.].

 

The invention railways brought convenience of coal transportation, making the division of work more specific, which provide opportunity of new regime which owns great power since it can determine a great amount of coal. Since 1880s, coal miners has became an important part in mass political movements. It is a leading role in contesting work regimes and the private powers of employer in the labor activism and political mobilization[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.]. The times of strikes of coal miners and the time of duration are always at the first place of all industries and it happened not only in Europe and North America, but also in Egypt, Turkey and other coal miners around the world.

 

Because of the particularity of work in coal miners, workers in coal miners have high level of autonomy and unite as one. They themselves arise a kind of political consciousness and force the authorities to listen to their voice. The coal-mining strikes took place in 1889 force the Kaiser, Wilhelm II to abandon Bismarcks hard-line social policy and gave the permission of labor reforms[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.].

 

Besides strikes, workers works slowly and carelessly deliberately to ask for protect their rights and increase wages, which is called sabotage. This actions take effect duet to each worker is indispensable in the whole work. In 1889, dockworkers used it to won the right of increasing wages after the failure of strike[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.]. And with the development of labor movements, worker from different but interconnected areas begun to strike together, called general strike, which is regarded as a big threat, which was put by Winston Churchill. And as he estimated, general strike showed up and the scale became lager and the strike happened in 1905 Revolution is a good example of size of strike.

When it came to the first world war, the importance of worker was more visible. Because political power was destroyed everywhere, new populist force came to the political stage.

 

To solve the problem of strike, Rockefeller created company unions to provide organization for workers to ask for interests in case of that they composing independent unions.[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.] Besides, countries such as US provide extensive welfare to control the dissatisfaction of workers.

 

In many countries of Europe and North America, through the effort of workers, between the 1880s and the interwar decades, they won their wanted legal rights such as vote, to form unions and strike.

 

The strike that took place in September, 1945, Standard Oil Refinery, which separated to Texas, California and other industries such as electrical power, iron and steel, won a great right. Since then, workers become part of managing and are related to the companys profit directly. And this model was exported to Europe later. ERP, known as the Marshall Plan, sought to engineer a political order in Europe built on a new relationship between organised labour and large industrial enterprises.[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.

]

US-style industriaI management, the recovery programme as a whole was made conditionaI on the acceptance by European governments of plans for economic integration, conversion to oil was to permanently to weaken the coaI miners is the three elements to the American-funded reorganization of the power of labor. Through this plan, the oils share up to 1/3 in 1960.

 

Replacing coal with oil, workers still fail to realize public control of industry, but they formed a unique community-based labor movement.

 

Except from Russia, the use of oil did not bring the problem of political force of oil producers because the reserves of oil is dispersed with small amounts and its use is not extensive. The strike of worker can only affected small oil company. Larger company such as Standard Oil Company can use the burden of strike to eliminate some small companies and defeat workers.

 

But in Russia, the oil workers hold general strike, which is called the Revolution of 1905, won many rights including having elected factory representatives.[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.] Its success proves again the importance of concentrated force in labor movements. The Russian imperial government used the Black Hundreds to suppress the strike workers and finally thousands people were killed in September, 1905 and their requirements were rejected.

The Middle East learn something from the oil organization in Russia, they hired workers from different ethics to balance their force.

The reasons why oil workers is not as easy as coal workers to union and strike successfully are that fewer workers are needed to exploit oil, workers are on the ground which are under well supervision and the method of transportation avoid the destruction from workers to a large extend and makes the damage easy to fix. Besides ,the movement of oil has more than one path to choose. As a result ,the system of oil transportation is more reliable.

 

But the easy of transportation arises another question that the competition of oil is much more intense than oil. The capitalists came up with restrict the amount of oil and produced obstacle of transportation to maintain high price to avoid competition. There many solutions are employed to realize the rise of price. In the early twentieth century, technical and political arrangements are used to control the prize of oil. The second method to control prize is to produce high consumption automobile to keep the pursuit of oil. In 1949, the US automobile replaced standard six-cylinder engines with V-8s, enlarging the consumption that each car needed largely,[ Clif Stratton, Machines of Democracy,Carbon Democracy, 2013.] although they have the ability to make low power cars or buy from Europe.

With the transformation of industrial carbon energy system, our living and political environment has changed a lot. Energy is dispensable for our living, making influence in our lifestyle. Meanwhile, policy always amends timely to cater for the decline the contradiction of capitalist and workers with the maximum pursuit of profits.

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