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West Indian

2019-01-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- West Indian,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西印度移民。自19世纪30年代起,英、法等欧洲殖民宗主国废除了西印度群岛地区的奴隶制后,获得人身解放的黑人奴隶便开始了长期的自由迁徙活动。从二战后至60年代初,西印度群岛人掀起了移民英国的热潮,他们在一些大城市建立了许多民族聚居区,积极与英国白人通婚,努力参与英国的劳动市场与政治领域,期望融入英国社会。但是,作为一支黑人移民群体,他们在英国的同化之路,却遭遇到严重的种族歧视。

West Indian,西印度移民,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Since the 1830s, Britain, France and other European colonial master countries abolished the slavery in the West Indies, and the freed black slaves started a long-term free migration. Especially since the World War II, the West Indies set off a wave of immigration to Britain, France and other suzerain. Among them, a large number of West Indies entered Britain and formed an important part of multi-ethnic Britain. At present, there is a lack of research on these West Indies living in Britain. This article intends to make a brief exposition of the history, integration status and problems of their immigration to Britain.

The West Indies first appeared in the history of Britain, which can be traced back to the early colonial expansion of Britain. At that time, some colonists who engaged in plantation and various trade activities in the West Indies returned to England and brought back some local residents to serve as servants. This practice was also fashionable in British society at that time. By the 19th century, with the expansion of the British Empire, more and more West Indies came to Britain to serve, mainly as sailors or soldiers. Before the 20th century, however, the limited number of West Indies who came to Britain pointed the way for later immigrants.

By the first half of the 20th century, the two world wars had provided an opportunity for the West Indies to enter Britain. Especially during the World War II, the labor department had to recruit part of the population in the colonies to relieve the serious shortage of troops and labor. As a result, a large number of West Indies came to Britain and engaged in various kinds of service activities. During this period, for example, 10, 000 men served in the British air force, 1, 200 British honduran forestry workers engaged in forestry activities in Scotland, 1, 000 mechanics served in military factories in merseyside and Lancashire, and so on. When the war was over, a few West Indies were able to stay and settle in Britain, while the vast majority were sent back to their countries of origin by the British government.

However, after the repatriated West Indies returned to their native land, their hometown was still backward and poor, which was in sharp contrast to the rich and developed situation they experienced in Britain. Driven by a huge psychological gap, some West Indies came to Britain again. On June 22, 1948, the empire downwind, carrying 492 black jamaicans, crossed the Atlantic ocean and arrived in Britain. Two-thirds of the Jamaican passengers had served in Britain during the war. The arrival of the empire tailwind marked the beginning of the large-scale entry of West Indies after the war. However, by the first half of the fifties, the number of West Indies entering Britain was not obvious. Starting in the mid-1950s, the number of immigrants began to increase rapidly, which led to an unprecedented new peak of immigration that lasted until the early 1960s. Due to the lack of official statistics on the West Indies in Britain before 1955, the exact number of settlers during the period following the arrival of the empire downwind is unknown. However, according to an estimate by a government spokesman, the number of West Indies entering Britain was as high as 16,000 in 1951, but only 1,000 in 1952 and 2,000 in 1953. In 1954, the number of West Indian immigrants rose rapidly to 10,000. From 1955, according to reliable British records, 118,800 West Indies arrived in Britain between 1955 and 1959. In addition, a large number of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent also entered the country at the same time.

The reason why the West Indies set off the wave of immigration to Britain after the war lies in: on the one hand, the economy of the West Indies continued to deteriorate after the war, and the unemployment rate remained high for a long time. In Jamaica, for example, Labour unemployment was 30%, and in the construction sector, which accounts for 14% of the country's Labour force, it was 40%. As a result, many workers have to go overseas to seek a living. On the other hand, contrary to the poverty and backwardness in the West Indies, Britain gradually moved towards stability and prosperity after the war. The rapid recovery and development of economy created many new jobs and correspondingly expanded the demand for labor force. In addition, the existence of the immigration network also provides convenient entry conditions for more West Indies. When some West Indies first arrived in Britain and found their feet, other "chain immigrants", including relatives, neighbors and friends, followed them one after another. Therefore, under a "snowball" effect, more and more West Indies poured into Britain.

The arrival of a large number of immigrants of color soon caused a panic in British society. As anti-immigrant sentiment has grown and the government has engaged in a long and heated debate over the immigration of people of color, restrictive laws have become inevitable. At the same time, the British government began to negotiate with the colonies in the hope that they could take measures to limit the number of immigrants they could export. However, it backfired. People of color from the West Indies and the Indian subcontinent set off an even larger wave of immigration in order to catch the last train of immigrants before the British restrictions were enacted. Hence the "beat-th-ban-rush" in the first half of 1960-1962. In 1960 and 1961, the number of West Indies reached 49,700 and 66,300 respectively, and reached 31,800 in the first six months of 1962 alone. The rapid growth of the West Indies prompted a sharp increase in their population in England. According to the British population in 1961, there were 210,000 West Indies.

In this situation, on October 31, 1961, the queen announced the enactment of the commonwealth immigration act in her speech to parliament. From July 1, 1962, all federal citizens who wish to travel to the UK, except those born in the UK or who hold a UK passport, must have a work permit issued by the home office, it said. After the law was implemented, the West Indian immigration wave was effectively controlled, and the number of people entering the country decreased sharply. Since then, although the total number of West Indies in Britain has continued to grow, this is mainly due to their high birth rate. Since the 1970s, the number of British West Indies has exceeded their number. Since about 1984, the number of british-born West Indies in Britain has exceeded the number of West Indies. Between 1966 and 1991, the number of foreign-born West Indies in Britain fell by nearly 100,000. By the 1991 census, there were 500,000 West Indies in Britain, or 0.91 per cent of the population.

The West Indies who entered the country after the war had two distinctive features. Population of the United Kingdom: according to statistics, jamaicans accounted for 57% of all West Indies in Britain in 1961, 56.5% in 1971, 55.6% in 1981, and 64.2% in 1991. In addition, immigrants from Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados and other places account for a considerable proportion, respectively. Second, the education level is low, the skill level is relatively backward. Poor economic conditions in the West Indies after the World War II forced an influx of unskilled and unemployable people into Britain; On the other hand, Britain has always pursued a liberal immigration policy within its federation, without any restrictions on the quality and skills of immigrants. As a result, from the end of World War II to the early 1960s, the overall quality of West Indies entering Britain was relatively backward, which was one of the reasons for their increasingly marginalization in the British job market.

For the West Indies, finding a suitable place to live was the first step in their gradual integration into British society. Gathering together, as with all groups living in unfamiliar surroundings, was a common choice for West Indies in England. After the war, most of the indians who came to Britain flocked directly to some major metropolitan areas such as London and Birmingham, thus showing a highly concentrated living distribution. The main reason for the concentration of the West Indies in the great cities; First, the early West Indies who came to Britain were first rooted in the big cities like London. Some of the settlements they created provided stable places for other later settlers to settle, and thus acted as invisible magnetic fields, attracting a steady stream of postwar West Indies. Second, compared with small towns and villages, big cities have more sound social service facilities and functions, which can provide various conveniences for the life of West Indies. Thirdly, during the transition from manufacturing industry to service industry in the postwar Britain, native British people generally experienced an upward mobility trend of jobs. Many low-skilled and low-wage jobs in cities were left behind, which also provided more employment opportunities for immigrants. By 1991, according to the British census, nearly 80% of the West Indies lived in London, Birmingham, Manchester and west Yorkshire. In London alone there are 290,000, or 58% of all West Indies.

While the overall distribution of West Indies is remarkably concentrated, the different groups also have relatively concentrated characteristics. Due to the large number of islands in the West Indies, the relative independence and cultural narrowness of the islands formed in the long history of development also had an important impact on the settlement options of immigrants in Britain. West Indians from different islands, depending on their geographical and kinship ties, prefer to live with people who belong to the same island or even the same village. In London, for example, jamaicans are concentrated in Brixton, and trinidadians and people from other eastern Caribbean regions are concentrated in Notting Hill. In addition, some other cities, such as Barbados in Reading, saint Vincent in High Wycombe and antigua in Leeds, also illustrate this point.

The highly concentrated distribution of West Indies is also conducive to the formation of ethnic settlements. In London, for example, the West Indies are clustered along the river Thames to the north-west, North-East and south, with its distinctive clusters. Among them, the West Indies living in lambes, hackney, lewisham, brent, haringey, sasserk and other places account for 5.5%, 4.1%, 4.3%, 4.4%, 3.5% and 3.4% of their total population, respectively. Similarly, in Birmingham, Manchester and other major cities, there are many large and small West Indian settlements. Within or among the settlements, the West Indies formed many associations or organizations of a mutative nature, providing their members with various benefits, including assistance to vulnerable groups such as children, women and the elderly, and travel expenses for home visitors. Some organizations are also in contact with local governments to actively safeguard their group interests. For example, the West Indian Standing Conference was established in 1962 as an intermediary agency to communicate with the British government and try to promote "good race relations" between immigrants and natives. In addition, the West Indies in the settlements often hold some of the parties and entertainment with national characteristics, such as the West Indies carnival, many of the traditional activities of the hometown transplanted to the United Kingdom. These activities, to some extent, alleviated the sense of loneliness of the West Indies in a foreign land, and gave them a necessary spiritual need, thus providing them with a spiritual sustenance and internal motivation for their survival in Britain.

In the long-term life and social contacts in Britain, the West Indies showed a positive integration willingness, and also showed a more obvious integration trend. The reason why they have such tendency of integration is closely related to some subjective and objective factors. From the perspective of subjective factors, due to the hundreds of years of British colonial rule in the West Indies, the West Indies have generally recognized the United Kingdom as their mother country emotionally, and they are subjects of the queen of England. They are willing to integrate into the United Kingdom subjectively. From the perspective of objective factors, influenced by the British colonial culture for a long time, the West Indies have become quite familiar with the British mainstream culture and values, and there are no barriers in language. At the same time, as overseas subjects of Britain, they enjoy the same rights as British people in legal aspects, which makes it relatively easy for them to integrate into British society. Therefore, when the West Indies came to Britain, they soon showed strong adaptability. They were eager to integrate into the British local society and actively moved towards the main ethnic group. This assimilation intention and integration trend can be well illustrated from such aspects as the group's interracial marriage, active participation in the job market and the political field.

The West Indies in Britain showed a trend of increasing integration with the main ethnic group in terms of racial intermarriage. Although in general, this group is still dominated by inter-group marriage, intermarriage between them and white British people is also common, and white people become their best choice for marriage outside their own ethnic groups. According to the research of scholars, in 1969, in the west Indian Terran mating ratio of 69.12%, followed by mating with European whites, at 17.31%, among them, the west Indian intermarriage between people and the British at a rate of 14.35%, with Britain's other Europeans intermarriage rate was 2.95%, but with other ethnic groups of mating rate is almost negligible. Similarly, the fourth national minority survey conducted by the PolicyStudies Institute confirmed this pattern of intermarriage among West Indies. According to the survey, West Indies intermarry 74.5 percent of the time within their ethnic group, 19.6 percent of the time with whites, and only 0.5 percent of the time with Indians and Pakistanis. Apparently, the low intermarriage rate between West Indies and groups such as those in India and Pakistan is largely due to cultural disparities. In addition, from the perspective of the history of intergenerational development, the intermarriage rate between West Indies and whites is also on the rise. According to the result of a survey of the 80 s showed that all west Indian families in the family, with 17.77% of white women marry men householder, however, the first generation of foreign-born immigrant men and white women's marriage rate is only 15%, and the second generation of men born in Britain householder intermarriage rate is as high as 40.3%, while the west Indian tribe in marriage still accounts for an absolute proportion, but the west Indian and white British marriage trends in continuously strengthen, with the passage of time, West Indies racial integration trend will be more obvious.

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