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British and Russian systems of colonial administration

2019-01-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British and Russian systems of colonial administration,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国和俄国的殖民主义管理体制。英国对于殖民的管理,就是通过在殖民地建立自治政府,利用它们来维护宗主国在这些地区的权益。这种自治政府主要建立在白人移民垦殖殖民地,独自管理自己的内部事务。与英国很不相同的是,俄罗斯对殖民地的管理体制不区分自治政府与专制政府,也不区分直接统治与间接统治。俄罗斯对殖民地的管理和对莫斯科周围地区的管理是一种模式,就是高度中央集权、垂直、强制、极其严格。

colonial administration,殖民主义管理体制,essay代写,作业代写,代写

In 1933, the British colonial empire reached its zenith. It has 120 million square miles of land and more than 500 million people, accounting for 23.85 percent of the earth's surface area and a quarter of the world's population. In order to effectively rule the huge and diverse colonial empire, the British government usually adopts two different administrative systems as its ruling means.

The first was by establishing self-governing governments in the colonies and using them to defend the interests of the suzerainty in those areas. This kind of self-government was mainly established in the colonies colonized by white immigrants, such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They had one basic characteristic in common, that is, each colony was an independent unit, which managed its own internal affairs independently. The suzerainty governments generally had little direct interference in them. The second system is to stabilize the foundation of its rule by establishing a form of autocratic government. This kind of autocratic government was mainly established in British India and other tropical colonies. They were collectively referred to as royal colonies after the 1770s. All were run by British satraps and were closely monitored from London. This kind of colonial management system in the form of autocratic government can be divided into two different types of specific modes of governance, namely direct mode of governance and indirect mode of governance. Direct rule is the way that the western colonial empire used to rule in the non-immigrant colonies. It abolished the traditional rulers and social systems in the colonies and directly sent staff to form a bureaucracy. The main feature of indirect rule is to retain the local political and social system, form an alliance with the original rulers, and conduct indirect rule through them. For example, the British rule over India has been direct since the early 19th century, but after the suppression of the Indian national uprising, the British adopted the indirect rule in some parts of India, thus making India an inclusive mixture of direct rule and indirect rule. With the exception of India, Britain exercised indirect rule in Nigeria, inland British west Africa, Malaysia, Fiji, etc. But in Ceylon, Burma, South Africa and elsewhere, direct rule was practised.

By the end of the 18th century, Russia had become a feudal military empire spanning Europe, Asia and America. It borders central Europe in the west, Alaska in the east, the arctic ocean in the north, and the Danube river in the south. By 1914, the Russian colonies covered 17.4 million square kilometers and had a population of 33.2 million. In terms of colonial size, Russia in 1914 was second only to Britain. The purpose of Russia's foreign expansion is to seek more and bigger land, sea access, natural resources and world hegemony. The centuries-old expansion and aggression of the Russian state is by no means an accidental impulse of the tsars, courts, nobles and soldiers, but in general it is a state policy handed down from generation to generation. As a permanent state policy, the foreign aggression and expansion of Russia had its class basis and social groups supporting it. Therefore, compared with the British colonial empire, the Russian colonial management system has its own characteristics.

First, Russia has long and consistently pursued a policy of coercive russianization of the original inhabitants of the colonies. Once the Russian government and its army captured a territory, they adopted a policy of russification among the local population. The specific content is to appoint Russian officials as far as possible, force the use of Russian language, promote Russian culture, enforce the orthodox religion, prohibit the use of local language, limit the popularity of indigenous culture and so on. Those who violate the above regulations on russification will be severely punished. Along with the russification came a series of policies of plunder and exploitation. Secondly, Russia always carried out the immigration policy to the colonies for a long time to consolidate the achievements of colonial aggression with the expansion of population. In addition to the russification of the non-russian inhabitants of the colonies, there has been the russification of occupied or annexed areas, which has also had serious consequences. It was the practice of the tsarist government to emigrate to these areas, so that the Russian population in the occupied and annexed areas was smaller and larger than the local population. The russification of these areas often has a longer-term strategic purpose than the russification of non-russian residents: in the event of future social unrest in these areas, the majority of Russian residents will be able to influence the political situation and determine the ownership of the regions.

It is not difficult to see from these comparisons that, quite different from the British, the Russian colonial management system did not distinguish between self-government and autocratic government, nor did it distinguish between direct rule and indirect rule. It can be said that Russia's management of the colonies and the area around Moscow is a model of highly centralized, vertical, coercive and extremely strict. In some periods, Russia administered its colonies more strictly than it had administered its own regions before the czar's colonial expansion.

There are many and complicated reasons for the differences between the British and Russian colonial management systems, but we can also summarize the most basic reasons through the analysis of politics, economy, culture and other aspects.

From the perspective of economy: the driving force of British colonialism expansion is the emergence of domestic capitalist production relations and the rapid development of capitalist economy caused by the industrial revolution. However, Britain is only an island in the Atlantic ocean, which makes it necessary for Britain to seek overseas for raw material production, product market, cheap labor and other necessary conditions for the development of capitalism. These factors drove the British colonialist expansion. Russia, on the other hand, did not have mature capitalist relations of production. Instead, they pursued colonial expansion in pursuit of more and larger land, sea access, natural resources and world hegemony. In sharp contrast to the dominant colonial expansion of industrial society in Britain, Russia is a typical dominant colonial expansion of agricultural society.

From the perspective of politics: Britain established the capitalist constitutional monarchy after the glorious revolution, and its colonial expansion brought a more advanced economic and political system and development model to the colonies while destroying their original political systems, which is the dual mission of colonialism described by Marx. Under the colonial rule of Britain, although the colonies lost their political independence, they still had the opportunity to achieve rapid economic and social development. In the colonial expansion while Russia has also contains a dual mandate, but due to the authoritarian Russia itself is a backward agricultural country, so its expansion more savage primitive, bring the colonized areas of the disaster was deeper, to some extent, is a serious impediment to the economic and social development of the colonized areas. From Siberia and the far east, for example, the economic and social development history of the status quo can speculate that if these areas could blend in China, Japan and South Korea in east Asia economic circle, should be able to get better and faster development, but Russia's central and local governments to worry that they snapped up the area will be from Asia independence from Russia, or "orientalize" and "Chinese style", therefore, are reluctant to comprehensively thoroughly and east Asian countries in economic and trade cooperation, even for east Asian countries take the attitude of hostility and exclusive investment and immigration.

From the perspective of culture, Britain is a core country of western civilization, one of the first countries to be bathed in the glory of the Renaissance, and a leader in the enlightenment of modern humanistic thoughts. The ideas of freedom, equality and human rights are deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. Therefore, while expanding colonialism, Britain also spread these important humanistic thoughts to the colonies, especially had a profound impact on the intellectual class of the colonies. These intellectuals used the capitalist humanistic ideas they learned in Britain to fight for the independence and national liberation of colonies. There was a very important reason for the global wave of decolonization after world war ii. Russia, on the other hand, was ruled by the mongols for more than 200 years and had no intellectual Renaissance in modern times. In the 20th century Russian land has deduced the whole process of the world's first civilizations rise and fall of the Soviet union, but the largest and most influential of Russian culture, or their feudal autocratic system, the czar authoritarian system, system of village and the unlimited expansion of land concept, such as Russia chauvinism belong to Russia's national character of system and ideology. These cultures were brought to their colonies by Russian immigrants, making the Russian colonies in a state of cultural backwardness for a long time.

From the perspective of decolonization: the British colonies achieved independence and national liberation in the global wave of decolonization after world war ii, and the British government treated the national independence movement of these colonies with a very rational and pragmatic attitude. Although it was very reluctant, it finally followed the trend of The Times. However, this was not the case in Russia. Under the autocratic system, the global wave of decolonization after World War II had little impact on Russia, and Russian colonies did not gain liberation and independence in this wave. The collapse of the Soviet union can also be understood as the liberation and independence of some Russian colonies, which was a belated decolonization movement. Fourteen republics gained their independence from the colonial rule of Russia. However, this movement was not complete. There were still many Oriental ethnic groups in Russia under the colonial rule of Russia, and they were all incorporated into the territory of Russia under the modern colonial expansion of the czar. The decolonization of these ethnic groups should be our focus in the future.

From the perspective of geopolitics: as an island country, Britain's colonial expansion was carried out through its navy and maritime trade. At the heart of the British concern is the question of maritime rights. The British empire has always been relatively easy to see the characteristics of colonial aggression and expansion around, because its colonies, dependencies in Europe, Asia, Africa, north and South America and Oceania can be found, these activities have a clear decentralization and world. Russia is a very typical continental country, its colonial expansion is through the army and land immigration to carry on. At the heart of the Russian concern was the question of land rights. Russia tends to give the impression of a united empire, and without an understanding of its history of aggression and expansion, it is hard to see the hidden side of the empire. Foreign aggression, tsarist Russia in to implement due to lack of navy or power co., LTD., is generally based on land do, sending troops attacked and destroyed the city seizes violence, unceasingly will account for regional Russia, a lot of moving to Russian immigrants, the local residents to arid area, finally will have won a region of the Russian territory, set up the corresponding administrative organizational system, into the empire's political body and obey the unified autocratic governance. Because the territory was connected to the Russian landscape, it gave an impression different from that of the British empire. In fact, after the invasion and expansion of the Russian empire, the territory and population that were incorporated directly into its territory and became part of its administrative unit were, to some extent, even more tragic. The aggression and expansion of the Russian empire had an outstanding continuity, and this state policy was basically carried out no matter how the internal political situation of Russia changed. At the same time, the multidirectional nature of this traditional policy has enabled Russia to extend its greedy hand in almost every direction of the border, seizing vast swathes of territory. Once Russia acquired a piece of land, it generally did not give it back easily, except when it suffered a heavy defeat. It is not difficult to see that the distinct geopolitical differences between the British and Russian colonial management system is an important reason for the differences.

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