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Pragmatism and American foreign economic policy

2019-01-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Pragmatism and American foreign economic policy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了实用主义与美国对外经济政策。实用主义产生于美国,活动中心也一直在美国。在形成后约一个世纪以来,实用主义一直被认为是美国民族精神和生活方式的理论象征,有人甚至认为实用主义在实际上具有美国准国家哲学的意义。从美国开始受到全球化挑战到全力参与全球化进程并成为全球化的倡导者和积极推动者这一转变过程,以及其在全球化过程中采取的相应政策措施来看,实用主义的哲学理念仍在时刻指导着美国政府的对外经济政策。

foreign economic policy,美国对外经济政策,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Pragmatism was born in America, and the centre of activity has always been there. Since its formation about a century ago, pragmatism has been regarded as a theoretical symbol of American national spirit and way of life. Some scholars even believe that pragmatism actually has the meaning of American quasi-national philosophy. One of the important reasons why pragmatism has such a high status and great influence in the United States is that the basic spirit of pragmatism is deeply rooted in the unique history and culture of the United States. As is known to all, the United States is a country of immigrants from all over the world, mainly from European countries. These immigrants have brought traditional cultures from all over the world. The new culture formed by the mutual exchange and integration of various traditional cultures is the negation of these cultural traditions themselves. Any kind of tradition has lost its significance as a criterion of judgment, and only those that are useful and successful in opening this new continent can be affirmed and inherited. The evaluation of the effectiveness and ineffectiveness, success and failure of the main activities goes beyond any cultural tradition or ideological principles and is regarded as the criterion of people's thoughts and actions.

In addition, the utilitarian concept of pragmatism is related to the protestant ethic practiced by the early immigrants. In contrast to Catholicism and other religions, the protestant ethic maintains that believers' piety towards god should be manifested in their earthly activities and that they should be judged by their concrete achievements. Ernest burman believed that the puritans who came to North America became "visionary pragmatists" while focusing on utility and judging success by the "validity, feasibility and practicality of ideas and purposes". Of course, the prevalence of pragmatism in the United States is inseparable from the development of modern natural science in the United States since the second half of the 19th century. Natural science in the United States has developed rapidly since the second half of the 19th century, and technological innovation has greatly driven the improvement of production technology and production efficiency. The emphasis on experiment and innovation has become the basic attitude of Americans towards the development of science.

The idea of American foreign policy is rooted in the pragmatism of American history and culture. It is not only the popular philosophy of the United States, but also the "official" philosophy of the United States.

In his introduction to tocqueville's on American democracy, lasky points out: "Americans are a practical people, not very thoughtful. They think about immediate interests rather than long-term ones. What they are loyal to is something that can be obtained, touched, tangible and valued in money. Former us secretary of state Henry kissinger once said that pragmatism is the "American spirit", which not only cultivates Americans' realistic style, but also cultivates everyone's enterprising spirit. It can be seen that the spirit of pragmatism has penetrated into every field of American social life and become the popular philosophy of the United States. For this reason, its citizens always show this feature when dealing with problems. For example, when Americans do things, they pay attention to whether it is good for them, pay attention to input and output, and pay attention to utility. At work, efficiency is valued. As David bono said, "... As pragmatists, Americans like to solve the problems at hand as quickly as possible. As a result, Americans value technology and have a strong desire to control the material world.

Pragmatism not only shapes the values and world outlook of the American people, but also actually influences the values and policy ideas of the American policymakers. America's bureaucracy, as kissinger puts it, is "bureaucracy-pragmatic leadership". Influenced by pragmatism, American bureaucrats usually deal with and solve problems in a pragmatic manner. Although the United States in the formulation and implementation of its diplomatic strategy and policy, always put forward many's idealism color, such as democracy, human rights, freedom and market economy, although these claims is embodies the American values and ethics, and these values are accepted by many countries, but the United States around the world promoting the extremely behind idealism color values, morals, deeply hidden is the United States in the pragmatism philosophy under the guidance of realism. As former us secretary of state George shultz said: "a foreign policy based on realism cannot ignore the importance of either ideology or morality. But realism demands that our foreign policies avoid being based entirely on moral absolutism divorced from political reality. Thus, for the United States, pragmatism plays a decisive role in both realism and idealism. As crabbe, the historian of American diplomacy, has pointed out, "the exercise of American power abroad must be shown to be connected with an artificial purpose clearly worth pursuing, and that purpose must be understood by the American people... Otherwise, exercising American power abroad... It can't be successful or permanent." And American citizens often use pragmatic efficacy criteria to evaluate the degree of adherence to the ideal.

Yan xuetong, a famous Chinese scholar on international issues, once said that "economic security became the focus of national interests after the cold war". The rapid development of science and technology not only facilitates the contact among countries in the world and pushes globalization to a new climax, but also brings huge challenges to the sovereignty and security of countries integrated into globalization. In order to cope with the challenges brought by the rapid development of globalization, the United States should maintain its leading position in the global economy, maintain its economic strategic security, fully participate in the process of economic globalization, and gradually become an active advocate and promoter of globalization. From the perspective of the transformation process of the United States from being challenged by globalization to fully participating in the process of globalization and becoming an advocate and active promoter of globalization, as well as the corresponding policy measures taken in the process of globalization, the philosophy of pragmatism is still guiding the foreign economic policies of the United States government at all times.

Economic globalization not only promotes the rapid development of the world economy, but also makes the international economic power become more and more decentralized, and finally makes the world economic pattern in the early 1990s have the situation of the United States, Japan and Europe. At the same time, the European integration process was accelerating, and the single currency system was implemented after the signing of the Maastricht treaty in 1991. The euro also became one of the major international reserve currencies. This makes the United States and the international status of the dollar has been a huge impact and challenge. At this time, the United States realized that globalization made open countries "have no clear demarcation line between foreign affairs and domestic affairs". Moreover, "under the new circumstances, the concept of security must be expanded, transformed and enriched. It is necessary to pay attention to and discuss new realities and problems in the era of globalization, such as economic security. Therefore, after Clinton took office, she clearly proposed economic security as one of the three strategies of her diplomacy. The proposal of economic security strategy makes the United States gain strategic advantage in the process of economic globalization. In fact, in the wave of economic globalization, although no country can avoid this process, only the United States "has the advantage of resources, capital and technology, so it is completely possible to make the most favorable choice according to absolute interests and comparative interests in a larger scope. It also proved that the United States was quick to make what was in its best interest when the time was right. It can be seen that pragmatism, as the "philosophy of action" and "enterprising philosophy", plays an important guiding role in the selection and formulation of American foreign economic policies.

Since the 1980s, the United States has actively promoted the signing of regional trade agreements, such as initiating the establishment of the north American free trade area, advocating and hosting the first informal meeting of leaders of the asia-pacific economic cooperation. In addition, he actively advocated the establishment of a global trade organization, the world trade organization, on the basis of gatt, and led the formulation of wto policies and rules. These steps have not only removed trade barriers and barriers for American goods and services to go global, but they have also strengthened America's leadership in the new global economy. If you want to ask why the United States actively participates in the process of economic globalization, the answer to the question is only one, that is: participating in and leading the economic globalization will greatly promote the national interests of the United States, that is, "usefulness is truth". Facts have also proved that full participation in economic globalization has not only brought sustained and rapid economic growth to the United States for more than a decade, but also made the United States the biggest beneficiary of economic globalization so far.

In addition, while vigorously promoting trade liberalization in the world, the United States also adopted some ugly practices that violated international trade norms in order to expand and safeguard its own interests. For example, in order to prevent the international business community from investing in Cuba, Iran, Libya and other countries, block the external trade with Cuba, and strengthen the containment of the United States against Cuba, the United States congress passed the helmsbury act and the damato act respectively in 1996 to promote economic power. Through conditional assistance, to promote the reform of developing countries in favor of the interests of the United States, the implementation of "new interventionism"; Restrict the export of high-tech products to China in order to maintain the technology monopoly; Linking trade to human rights, etc. This is a short-sighted practice under the influence of the instrumentalist view of truth.

The "buy American" provisions of the us stimulus package and later the "special tyre guarantee" and other protectionist measures have a strong pragmatic philosophy. The pragmatic view of truth that "usefulness is truth" and "truth is tool" has been fully reflected. From the current domestic economic and political situation of the United States, the introduction of a series of trade protectionism measures is the product of the "bureaucrat-pragmatic leadership group" after weighing the pros and cons and fully considering the current "effectiveness" of the policy.

After years of economic globalization, the world within the scope of the economic landscape has been basically formed, the high-tech industry, financial industry, service industry and so on all have stronger competitiveness and advantages, and traditional industries such as steel and textiles were losing comparative advantage, which can lead to gradually lost competitiveness in the international market, mainly rely on imports to meet domestic demand. In the context of the current financial crisis and the increasingly obvious economic recession, through the "buy American clause" and other measures can to some extent improve the American people's demand for products from domestic related industries, thus playing the role of increasing employment and stimulating the economy.

For now, the domestic situation in the United States is urging President Obama to support a degree of protectionism, but other countries want him to live up to the liberal foreign economic policies he campaigned on. However, as a "pragmatic leadership group", it is most "effective" to gain the support of the American people and then implement the new economic stimulus plan as soon as possible to promote the recovery of the American economy from the economic downturn. The "buy American" provisions have won the support of some American people and domestic interest groups. Therefore, politically speaking, the introduction of these trade protectionist measures is also the result of relevant political forces in the us congress yielding to pressure from individual industries or interest groups for domestic political considerations.

As the world's largest trading country, the United States' total imports and exports account for nearly 15% of the world's total imports and exports, which means that protectionist measures such as "buy American" clauses cannot fundamentally reverse the existing trade deficit pattern, nor can they really stimulate the us economy to stop falling and pick up, or even stop the recession. In the long run, protectionist trade policies are tantamount to drinking poison to quench America's thirst. Pragmatism "often leads policy makers to temporarily avoid long-term strategic goals and focus on immediate problems. This matter-of-fact habit may prevent policy makers from taking a long-term view. Short-sighted pragmatists cannot anticipate future trends and take long-term problems as serious subjects."

"Our question today is not whether our government is too big or too small," Obama said in his inaugural address. Where the answer is yes, we go. Maybe, we can see from Mr Obama's speech: whether it is as the advocates of economic globalization, there are advocates of free trade and practitioners, or as carrying out trade protectionism under the current financial crisis, the United States, the United States leadership group is under the influence of pragmatism philosophy and shape, and this kind of influence and shape the moment reflected in U.S. foreign economic policy and its action choice. Therefore, "usefulness is truth" and "truth is tool" -- pragmatism, as a kind of "American spirit", is a philosophical thought that we must examine when interpreting the orientation of American foreign economic policy. Starting from the pragmatic philosophy, we can have a deeper understanding of American policies and actions.

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