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The legal guarantee of educational financial investment in Britain

2019-01-16 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The legal guarantee of educational financial investment in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国教育财政投入的法制保障。在英国,有关教育财政的内容都包含在其他的教育法之中,教育财政立法作为教育立法内容的一部分,成为国家加强对教育改革与管理的手段,1988年,英国颁布了《教育改革法》,该法的目的是把先进的科技知识和技能引入课程之中,强化中央政府的权力,提高教育质量。于是,设法把教育经费改革置于整个教育改革之中,对地方教育当局维持学校的经费,确定获得直接拨款公立学校资格的权利,继续教育和高等教育基金资助计划,教育基金委员会的职能等进行了改革,以教育财政投入支持和保障教育改革。

educational financial investment,英国教育财政投入法制保障,essay代写,作业代写,代写

From the 1860s to the late 1830s, the second half of the 18th century, with the industrial revolution as the background, was also a period when British social thought was extremely active. First is Adam Smith, in his "the wealth of nations" pointed out: education is of great significance to the development of social economy, as compulsory education, elementary education should be obtained from general tax by the state Treasury. Thomas paine thought education should be borne by the public of the country, the poor children under the age of 14 grants to 4 pounds a year, free compulsory education. Another factor contributing to Britain's education finances is the rapid growth of its population. The sheer size of population growth broke the civil society monopoly on primary education and prompted the state to intervene directly in education. The combination of these factors contributed to the emergence of national education finance in Britain in the first half of the 19th century. In 1833, Alsop, then the minister of finance, proposed the education grant act, which was passed by the parliament.

The primary education act is a milestone in the history of British education and a sign of the establishment of the British education financial investment system. The law stipulates that a sufficient number and appropriate quality of schools must be established to educate the people. In areas where schools are scarce, local education boards are set up whose job it is to "fill in the blanks". For the required funds, the bill provides for "the use of funds from local taxes approved by parliament under the supervision and control of the central government and under local administration". The bill also gives local school boards the power to issue free vouchers to parents who they believe are unable to pay for their children's education. Tuition is still charged, roughly a third from parents, a third from state taxes and a third from local taxes. Taxes are levied where local funds cannot be raised through voluntary donations. Bill these content, make the local government not only has the collection of local taxes to open the power of the elementary education, solve the problem of districts of the existing lack of elementary education, also make the central government in the case of less to gain control of the education a lot, at the same time, it also established the British elementary education expenses subsidies from central and local taxes and fees Shared finances.

Regulations: first, appoint county and county-level city councils as "part ii local education authorities", which are responsible for all kinds of education except primary education in the region, and have the power to establish local required secondary schools, secondary technical schools, vocational schools and teacher training institutions, and provide financial support with local taxes. In terms of funds, local education authorities may, under the local tax act of 1890, dispose of subsidies and may levy a tax of no more than 2 pence per pound for secondary education. The bill also provides for public subsidies for all kinds of technology and science. Second, the municipal government with a population of more than 10,000 and the municipal district council with a population of more than 20,000 are designated as the "part iii local education authorities". Thirdly, local tax subsidies should be extended to private schools in order to further strengthen their supervision and control. Scholarships are offered to talented students in primary schools to enable them to transfer to grammar schools, etc. After the enactment of Balfour law, the financial input of secondary education in Britain has been guaranteed to a certain extent. Therefore, secondary education is increasingly valued by people.

The fisher act was enacted in 1918. Rules: eliminate primary school tuition fees, public elementary schools will be free, with no less than 50% of the education funds subsidized by the central government. To reform the education grant system, the original 17 different subsidies for primary education and 40 different subsidies for secondary education were simplified into two annual subsidies. Made primary education truly free in Britain. In addition, the fisher act further simplified the financial support of local education authorities, which accelerated the process of perfecting the public education financial system in Britain.

Butler act, issued in 1944, summarizes the important achievements of British education legislation since the 1870s, including important education principles and policies proposed in various government documents, reports and decrees since the 1820s. It is the largest education law in Britain since its own education law. As the foundation of modern education system in Britain, it has played the role of "basic law" of general education for a long time. There are five chapters and 122 articles in the whole law. The general principles of the fourth part of the law stipulate in detail the contents of educational financial input, such as educational funds, scholarships, subsidies, donations and teachers' salaries.

The education reform law promulgated in 1988 has a total of 238 articles, of which 1/6 are about the content of education financial input. The law marks a new era in Britain's education budget. In the field of adult education, it replaced the "university grants committee" with the "university grants committee", marking the end of the history of applications for grants from the ministry of education by the university external curriculum department of the responsible group since 1924. The law is also reflected in the implementation of a national curriculum and the implementation of a new achievement assessment system. In terms of educational financial input, the introduction of market theory to encourage schools to compete "is obviously a step towards the market direction". It can be seen that the education finance in Britain is changing from being mainly borne by the state to focusing on the role of market and improving efficiency.

Announced the abolition of nearly 30 years of higher education dual system, the establishment of a unified higher education system. In line with this, a unified higher education funding body, the committee for higher education funding, was established to replace the committee for university funding and the committee for multi-disciplinary and technical colleges and universities, and to be responsible for the funding for universities, multi-disciplinary and technical colleges and other colleges. Higher education foundation is an independent public institutions, ngos, only a few members are related to secretary, designated by the foundation by strong industrial and commercial industry and higher education representatives, each set a part-time chairman and executive director of a full-time, professional executive director is a member of the foundation, the relevant government departments of assessors shall have the right to attend each foundation meeting and talk at the conference. The foundation appropriation is mainly based on the direction of running school, the principle of appropriation and the comprehensive evaluation of teaching and scientific research in colleges and universities. Through these reforms, the British government has changed the situation of uniformed channels of university investment in the past, and gradually formed a new system combining government financial investment and participation of all sectors of society in running schools.

Because of the difference of subordinate to the law and legislation tradition and habits, the British did not make the burden of compulsory education, the national Treasury law as Japan, America's 1984 appropriations act, such as special education fiscal law, the relevant education finance are included in the other's education law, the content of the education finance legislation as part of the education legislation content, become the countries strengthen the education reform and the management means of British films have a major impact on the education of law, such as the elementary education law, the act of baal foer, the fisher act and so on all have the same characteristics. Take the education reform law enacted in 1988 as an example. The purpose of the law is to introduce advanced scientific and technological knowledge and skills into the curriculum, strengthen the power of the central government and improve the quality of education. Then, try to put the education finance reform in the whole education reform, the local education authorities to maintain the school funds, ensure that the rights of direct funding public school qualification, continuing education and higher education fund plan, function and so on has carried on the reform of education fund committee, financial input in education support and guarantee for education reform.

However, the central government of the United Kingdom is generally only directly responsible for the financial input of higher education. Basic education, adult education and other types of education funds are mainly borne by local education authorities, and the central government gives subsidies to local education authorities. In 1900, central government subsidies accounted for 56 percent of local education expenditure. 4 percent in 1910 and 48 percent in 1910. 5 percent, accounting for 56 percent in 1920. 1% and 53 in 1930. 2%, 1938 year 54. In 1950, 61. After 1965, the central government generally provided 60 percent of the local education funds. In 1900, the proportion of inadequate local education funds paid by local taxes was 43. 6 percent, 1910 year 51. 5 percent, 1920 year 43. 9%, 1930 year 46. 8 percent, 1938 50. 5 percent, 1950 year 38. After 1965, the local tax burden of education funds is generally about 36%.

British secondary schools have public secondary schools and independent "public schools", namely private schools. Higher education includes universities, public higher education schools and private universities. Public secondary schools are funded mainly by local education authorities, while private secondary schools are funded mainly by tuition fees, private donations and other financial support. British universities are independent and self-governing organizations. Before 1988, the funds mainly came from the central government, but the funds provided by the government for universities were not directly allocated to each university. Instead, the "committee of university appropriations" established in 1919, an intermediary organization, was responsible for the allocation of education funds to universities. Britain's public universities are funded mainly by local education authorities. The private university of buckingham, established in the 1970s, is funded by tuition and other support, as are private secondary schools. This significant difference in funding sources between different schools is a feature of the UK's educational financial input. But in higher education, the gap has been narrowing in recent years, thanks to a series of government reforms.

With the enhancement of the market nature of British education finance system, expanding social participation and increasing funding sources have become another inevitable trend in the development of British education finance. In the field of basic education, the education reform law of 1988 established the "direct funding school" policy. According to the regulations, the education and science minister will provide the funds for running such schools directly to the schools through central allocation, and the local education authorities will be responsible for the school's foundation, transportation and student welfare. In 1991, with the continuous growth of the number of directly funded schools, the British government carried out a new reform on the primary and secondary education system, and passed the education law of 1993, which stipulated the establishment of "school fund office" to replace the original allocation of direct funded schools by the ministry of education. The school fund is made up of 10 to 15 members appointed by the secretary of state, most of whom come from the business sector other than education. In the field of higher education, the education reform act of 1988 provided for the replacement of the "university grants committee" with the newly established "university foundation", and the decision was made in 1992 to replace the "university foundation" with the "higher education foundation" and provided for the strong business personnel in the foundation. The aim of these reforms is to strengthen the links between schools and the business community, expand social participation and broaden the sources of education funds.

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