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British open distance education

2019-01-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British open distance education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国远程开放教育。英国远程开放教育在国际上独树一帜,优异的质量保证制度和方式为其赢得了世界性声誉,也为众多的国家所学习和效仿。英国远程开放教育质量保证制度的形成、发展与变革深受英国的人文主义、自由主义、保守主义和绅士文化传统的影响。

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The success of British open distance education has been concerned and respected by many countries, and is regarded as the model of distance education in the world. In the past, scholars' research on distance and open education in the UK, including its quality assurance, was often limited by the focus on tangible construction such as system and architecture, and paid little attention to intangible factors behind quality assurance. The famous British comparative educator sadler has a famous saying: "we should not forget that the things outside the school is more important than the things inside the school, and control and explain the things inside the school. ... In other words, researchers should pay more attention to the ecological background of education. Sadler believes that comparative education is better to find the spirit embedded in other countries' education systems than to imitate it directly. Sadler also warned that when studying foreign institutions, one must not look only at buildings one can see or touch, nor at teachers and students in schools, but look beyond schools for the invisible, elusive spiritual forces that sustain them. According to ISSaC Kandel, comparative education requires first of all to understand the intangible and intangible spiritual and cultural forces in education, which are more important than internal affairs. Therefore, it is necessary to study the country's traditions, the strength of social organizations and attitudes to understand, experience and evaluate the real significance of a country's education system. Contemporary renowned comparative educationist Nicholas Hans accepted and developed sadler's thought, further emphasizing the connection between education and social, economic, political and intellectual backgrounds, and the historical analysis of those intangible and elusive spiritual and cultural forces that formed the educational system. The thoughts and methodology of these masters of comparative education provide us with powerful analytical ideas and tools to study the factors and forces behind the quality assurance of distance and open education in the UK.

Culture is an important reason for the differences in educational system, mode and quality assurance system between different countries. Even countries with close political and economic factors will have significant differences in educational structure and characteristics due to cultural differences. In the process of Britain's modernization, its education has formed a unique British model, which also leaves some questions. The British government has long pursued a policy of little or No intervention in education, and even the term "no-business of the State" appeared in English. In the course of the development of education in Britain, there have been many plans, decrees and bills for the reform of education, but few of them are as radical as those seen in other European countries. In examining the quality assurance system and system of distance and open education in the UK, these phenomena make us ponder that some traditional interpretation tools seem difficult to complete such interpretation tasks. This paper attempts to explore the influence of British cultural tradition on the quality assurance system of distance and open education from the perspective of cultural research.

Humanism is a great banner and guiding ideology of the Renaissance, and it originated from the humanities and Humanism, Italian and Latin are written humanista. In the 15th century, the humanities were the subjects of grammar, rhetoric, history, literature, and moral philosophy.

Humanism is committed to the pursuit of human liberation, and its central theme is to explore people's potential ability and creativity, emphasizing the full play of people's personality, talent, uniqueness and talent. Humanists believe that education is the main means to realize people's value, develop their potential and creativity. Humanism has a great influence on the evolution of the whole western society.

Thanks to the humanists, Europe never lost faith in human ability and intelligence; Once celebrated by humanists, they remain the greatest source of inspiration for western life and thought.

The rapid development of English humanism was under the Tudor dynasty, which was greatly promoted by Shakespeare, spencer and bacon. After the reformation, a new humanism spirit gradually penetrated into the educational thought and practice, which is embodied in the fact that the educational goal no longer emphasizes the religious and ethical value of education, but cultivates the gentleman with harmonious body and mind and good manners. In the 20th century, under the common construction of many thinkers, it gradually formed an ideological movement with the theme of affirming the fundamental value of human beings and emphasizing human dignity. Thus, a conceptual theory of thought gradually clear up in the consciousness of modern people. Humanism is a kind of human nature, significance, mission, status, value, characteristics of theories and doctrines, its focus is the people, subject, subjective, individual existence and life, free will, value, intuition, experience, emotion and so on, is the most stressed the value of people, its thought essence and the ultimate significance lies in the emphasis on people-oriented, emphasizing on human gift of pure love and good to pursue the meaning of survival. On this basis, the humanistic spirit is mainly reflected in a human survival and thinking state, it is the value of human beings, the significance of human survival, is the fate of mankind. The thought and exploration of relief from human suffering.

Humanism is reflected in the impact of education. It emphasizes the "people" as the center, affirms secular life, advocates rationality, pursues knowledge, opposes the monopoly of the church on education, thoroughly criticizes the complicated scholasticism and scholasticism education, and advocates the establishment of a new secular education. The humanistic tradition has a great influence on the open and distance education in Britain.

The idea of education is connected with the idea of running a school, and the idea of quality is connected with the idea of education. Obviously, what kind of school idea and training idea, what kind of quality idea will have. Colleges and universities that insist on cultivating top-notch talents will have higher requirements on faculty allocation, teaching process and resource quality. Although British open distance education developed under the promotion of education democratization and lifelong education thought, it always pursues the same quality as traditional education, and insists on the unity of expanding people's access to higher education and improving teaching quality in the guiding ideology of running a school. It is because of this philosophy, in the process of promoting popular education, it has also acquired the world reputation in the quality of education. Having gone through a path from questioning to co-operation to competition with traditional institutions, no one can now argue that open distance education in the UK has diluted the quality of higher education while promoting the popularization of higher education.

In terms of the openness of the educational objects, the enrollment policy fully reflects the humanistic tendency. For instance British Open University, no matter profession, seniority, social position, want to have the intention of study only, can sign up register enter a school, do not need any form entrance exam, recruit students presses sign up order to admit successively. There are special programs for students with physical or other disabilities, even allowing a significant number of prisoners to attend classes to help them return to the mainstream. The Open University currently has 168,745 undergraduate students, 16,464 consulting and lecture-based graduate students and 770 full-time graduate students. The average age of the students is 32, which reflects the consistent tenet of the school. However, students aged between 18 and 2l are now the majority of the school. Apart from some elementary level students, they are only about 14 years old, about 11,000 students are disabled, and the Open University provides them with special help.

It can be said that the humanistic tradition gave birth to the idea of British distance education institutions, and together with other cultural traditions, gave birth to its unique quality concept.

Otto Peters, a world-renowned expert on distance education and former President of Hagen university of distance education in Germany, put forward a theory of industrialization of distance education through the comparison of distance education and commodity industrial production. The industrialization theory of distance education describes the characteristics of distance education objectively to a certain extent, and at the same time reveals its insufficiency of humanization. Many remote education theory researchers and practitioners are aware of this problem, then there are many scholars on the model correction, rely on advanced information technology to provide remote education, provide learners with more convenient, more flexible, autonomic and fast distance education service model to meet the changing needs of learners. From the perspective of talent cultivation process, the core link of quality generation is teaching, while management and service provide support for this core process. The quality assurance of open distance education in Britain is also related to its teaching model.

The teaching mode of distance education in Britain is a typical humanistic teaching mode, which changes the traditional teacher-centered "cramming" and "cramming" teaching methods, and replaces the learner-centered constructive learning mode. This model stimulates learners' motivation through teaching, fully respects learners' individual experience, guides learners to learn meaningfully, creates all conditions and opportunities, promotes learners to learn and change, and truly turns knowledge into learners' inner spiritual wealth. Around the center of learners, the choice of learning time, learning content and learning method should fully respect learners' wishes and help students to learn independently with the help of modern equipment. In the relationship between teachers and students, it is also the democratic and equal humanistic orientation. Teachers are the facilitators, helpers, tutors and friends of the learners in the process of learning. The main responsibility of a teacher is to create a good learning atmosphere and environment, help learners overcome the obstacles in learning, and provide multi-dimensional support services. It can be said that the teaching mode emphasized by British distance education is full of strong humanistic atmosphere. For example, in order to meet the learning needs of different students, the Open University of the UK has adopted flexible and diverse learning methods, such as online independent learning, group learning and short-term residential learning. This approach of getting close to learners, satisfying learners and serving learners is consistent with the humanism spirit in the traditional British culture.

One of the characteristics of British open distance education is to attach great importance to the construction of learning support service system. Distance open education has developed from complete independent Learning to Supported open Learning, which is the result of continuous research and exploration by distance education researchers and practitioners. Without learning support services, problems and difficulties faced by distance learners may not be solved in time, which directly affects the persistence of distance learning and the effectiveness of learning. In the modern distance education, including the distance learning in the network environment, colleges and universities should focus on the distance learners' sense of alienation, loneliness and helplessness.

From the perspective of the process of feedforward control -- field control -- feedback control in management, if teaching and support are process control, the use of student information is the means of feedback control. In terms of the improvement of teaching and curriculum quality, both the single-mode Open University and the dual-mode distance education in the university of London emphasize the importance of student feedback. The core of quality generation revolves around students. Students' needs are the starting point and students' development is the foothold. This concept runs through thoroughly. Ucl has established a centralised control of the overall quality assurance mechanism, including a consistent rule reporting system, complemented by periodic course and subject reviews. Systematic reporting is an important feature of the overall quality framework because it provides a regular mechanism for evaluating international curriculum activities and other related areas. Ucl believes in combining quality assurance with student life cycle management. In terms of student feedback, learning process survey is the central mechanism to systematically collect, report and consider student feedback. Survey students at different stages of study, including two groups of undergraduates and one group of graduate students. These surveys focus on the "consumer satisfaction" of the student learning life cycle and look at administrative work. The final report is submitted to the quality assurance and student learning life cycle subcommittee and the academic committee.

The Open University USES a similar feedback mechanism. Education institutions teaching design and the communication in different ways, taken by the quality assurance procedures are different, but the basic point is consistent, that is the feedback information attaches great importance to the circulation use of various channels, including the recruitment of students, exam, student performance statistics data, investigation, interview and counseling, as well as the graduate student employment information and the opinions of the employer, etc. Through these feedback data, distance learning institutions can know the changes of education supply as a whole, including the changes of curriculum elements and curriculum design with less influence, to a wider range of courses, as well as the changes of local or school-wide curriculum arrangement or learning guidance support. The feedback control mechanism can be implanted in different levels according to different USES to make the feedback information play the biggest role. In other words, by collecting and sorting out the low-level feedback and comparing it with the high-level feedback, the basic judgment of the education supply model can be obtained. At the same time, the information can also be used to adjust the data collection process so that the feedback data can play a greater role in the future.

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