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American special education

2019-01-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American special education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的特殊教育。美国特殊教育的高度发达与其特殊教育立法息息相关。经过近百年的发展,美国特殊教育法律体系已经相当完善,有效地保障了美国各类残疾人的受教育权,尤其对促进特殊儿童教育机会均等起到了非常重要的作用。

special education,美国的特殊教育,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Special education plays an important role in the current American education system. According to statistics, there are about 6.42 million special children and youth aged 3 to 21 in the United States. The United States government pays great attention to the issue of special children's access to school and ensures their equal access to education through a series of legal policies and practical measures.

The highly developed special education in the United States is closely related to its special education legislation. After nearly 100 years of development, the legal system of special education in the United States has been quite perfect, effectively guaranteeing the right to education of all kinds of disabled people in the United States, and playing an important role in promoting equal educational opportunities for special children.

Special education in the United States has not always been strongly supported by national and state policies and regulations. Although the federal constitution enacted in 1788 guaranteed the right of all children to receive education, and governments at all levels established the compulsory education system in accordance with the constitution, most disabled children were excluded at that time. In the 1970s, there were about 8 million children with disabilities in the United States. Disabled children placed in regular classes are also not adequately educated because of the lack of acceptance and support systems. The lack of adequate services for disabled children in the public school system; Financial input cannot meet the educational needs of disabled children; Federal and state laws on the education of disabled children are difficult to enforce.

Based on the above conditions, the United States congress passed the education for all disabled children act in 1975 to protect the educational rights and interests of disabled children and regulate special education in schools. The bill is a milestone in the development of special education in the United States, providing legal support for equal and appropriate education for children with disabilities. The act establishes six basic principles for protecting the rights of disabled children and their parents.

Since its promulgation, the law on the education of all disabled children has undergone many revisions, and the contents and details of its six basic principles have been constantly developed in the new law.

In 1990, the United States changed the education for all disabled children act of 1975 to the barrier education act. This change in the appellation of the service object reflects the people-oriented concept in the special education language, that is, the obstacle is only a certain characteristic of people, people should not be equated with obstacles. The revision adds two new disability categories to the disability category: autism and traumatic brain injury. The age of the recipients of special education services has also changed, beginning to extend to both ends, covering special children between 0 and 21 years old; Special children's education programs included not only the special infants and young children aged 0 to 2 individualized family service projects, 3 ~ 21 school-age children's individualized education plan, and 16 ~ 21 disabled youth individualized transition plan, also increased the recovery in the related education services and social work services and rehabilitation area.

In 1997, the disabilities education law was revised, re-enacted the disabilities education law amendment, in view of the special education in the process of low expectations of special children, in practice it is difficult to ensure to use effective education, teaching method, which was confirmed by research such as insufficient, more emphasis on the issue of benefit for special children's education and success. In the individualized education plan, attention should be paid to the connection with general education, the responsibility for the standardized education results of students with disabilities, and the improvement of students' academic achievements. Minimize unnecessary paperwork and emphasize the actual teaching process. In terms of educational effectiveness, it highlights the practical goals of special education proposed by the congress in terms of equality of opportunity, independent living, integration and sharing, and economic independence. In addition, the amendment to the law on the education of persons with disabilities also makes clearer provisions on the management and disposal measures for discipline violations and illegal behaviors of persons with behavior disorders.

At the end of 2004, President bush signed and promulgated the "barrier education promotion act", which revised the "barrier education act" again. One of the important improvements is to further improve the non-discriminatory evaluation principle for students with language and cultural differences in special education. The law made clear that all school districts across the United States has been accepted for students with differences in language and culture special education implementation of education before referral schemes, ensure that the students can better adapt to the special education, and counter rotating medium intervention funds investment, teacher training and so on detailed regulations, more perfect the disabilities education law's provisions.

Normal class is the ordinary class of ordinary school. In normal classes, some special children can all classes, all the time with ordinary students; Some teachers with special education training are required to coach them in regular classes or after class. Some must receive the full-time special education teacher's instruction in the certain extracurricular time or the class time. Children can be placed in special classes or isolated Settings only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that the use of subsidized assistance in regular class education remains unsatisfactory.

Resource classroom refers to a way in which special children receiving guidance learn general courses in ordinary classes most of the time and receive guidance from resource teachers or special education personnel in resource classroom in the rest of the time. Through this arrangement, the potential of special students can be maximized, their defects can be compensated in time, and their social adaptability can be developed, so that they can successfully study in ordinary classes. The characteristic of resource classroom education mode is that it can make the best use of the existing human and material resources in ordinary schools and is suitable for the teaching of mildly disabled children.

The isolation class is set up in ordinary schools for special children, but this kind of isolation is not a complete sense of isolation. The isolation class usually consists of 3 ~ 4 students or a little more, and the special education teachers teach all or part of the day. Teachers carry out teaching materials, teaching methods and teaching schedule that are suitable for special children according to students' conditions. During class and after class hours, students in separate classes can be with ordinary students. "Isolation" is only in the main teaching activities. For example, sometimes students of the isolation class attend classes in ordinary classes, and special sign language teachers often come to the classroom with the class to do translation. During communication between classes, teachers who understand sign language can also be found in the school wearing special sign language costumes to translate.

Isolation institutions are special education schools and other institutions for children with disabilities, including public and private day schools, boarding schools, residential correctional medical institutions, nursing homes and closed homes. From the perspective of social contact and communication, the above types of institutions are more isolated and have fewer opportunities to communicate with the society. Some people believe that special education schools are places where children with disabilities are marked or labeled as harmful, isolated from society, unequal and not conducive to children's psychological development, and should be abolished. Others believe that the earliest educational service for disabled children in the United States was a separate special school, where disabled children could communicate freely with peers, learn knowledge and develop according to their characteristics. Can get labor training or can still get the tracking help and care of the school after graduation; Moreover, there are facilities, teaching AIDS, accommodation, transportation and classes for the disabled, which fully take into account their special needs. At present, special schools are declining in many states and regions of the United States, but they still play an important role in the education system for disabled children in the United States. Special education schools exist in a complementary way with several other resettlement methods. They play a role in a state or a region to accommodate the severely disabled, the disabled or as a special education resource center.

In addition to the protection of laws and regulations, the specific measures to safeguard the fairness of special education are the practical actions to implement the fairness of special education. In order to ensure the fairness of special education to the greatest extent, the United States has made unremitting efforts in concrete implementation. The reason why the United States can maintain the leading level in the field of special education is directly related to the optimal allocation of special education resources, the most important of which is the investment in education funds and the optimal allocation of teachers, which plays an important role in maintaining the fairness of education.

The continuous increase of the federal government's funding for special education is of great significance to the realization of equity in special education. Since the 2008 financial crisis in the United States, the U.S. economy has been severely hit, President Obama took office to take various measures to actively deal with the financial crisis, in an effort to restore the economy. This includes spending on special education. Under the American recovery and reinvestment act of 2009, which President Obama signed in 2009, policy spending on education is projected to reach about $100 billion over the next two to three years. Special education in the United States has also received a large amount of policy input. These funds are distributed by the education departments and education management departments of each state according to the specific situation. $400 million to pre-school institutions; Half a billion dollars goes to orphans and poor families. According to the law, relevant institutions and departments should follow four principles when planning and using these policy-based investment funds. The second is to improve the performance of special students through the reform and improvement of school facilities and systems. Third, ensure the transparent and effective use of funds; Fourth, as far as possible to invest in short-term projects, to avoid the effect of capital fault. An education funding announcement from the office of special education and rehabilitation services of the U.S. department of education also mentions the use of educational media to provide educational services to children with special needs, including television programs, videotapes and Internet technology.

The federal government's investment in special education covers all aspects of the education and placement services provided for special children from birth to adulthood, effectively guaranteeing the right of special children to receive education.

The development of American special education cannot be separated from a large number of high-quality teachers. The quality and scale of teachers directly affect the special education received by special children, which is the direct embodiment of educational fairness. The federal government of the United States is very strict with teachers engaged in special education, requiring all special education teacher positions to be held by qualified teachers. Teachers' salaries for special education are related to students' academic performance. Schools evaluate teachers' performance in class, which can stimulate teachers' teaching enthusiasm to the greatest extent and improve the teaching efficiency of special education. The us department of education also provides special funds for the training of special education teachers. While cultivating professional special education teachers, it also allows teachers from ordinary schools to enter the special education industry through a series of professional special education training. The United States cultivates special education teachers through various ways and forms its own special education teacher system.

The United States federal government's diversified educational resettlement methods for special children directly reflect its fairness and justice in promoting that special children have equal rights with ordinary children in receiving education. The four educational resettlement methods based on children's disability level mentioned above ensure that all special children can receive education and services appropriate to their disability level, so that each special child can get his or her own way of resettlement. The special children placed in resource classrooms and ordinary classrooms account for more than 70% of the total number of special children, ensuring that most of the special children can learn together with normal children, which directly reflects the concept of integration and integration of education.

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