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British empiricism and continental rationalism

2019-01-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British empiricism and continental rationalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国经验论和大陆唯理论。经验论与唯理论是欧洲近代哲学围绕认识论问题所展开的一场重要之争,在欧洲哲学史上产生了深远而又广泛的影响。经验论和唯理论的争论,几乎涉及到认识论的所有方面,但它的实质是唯物的反映论反对唯心先验论的斗争,确切地讲是唯物经验论与唯心唯理论的争论,两者斗争的中心问题是知识的起源,以及感性和理性在认识中的地位和作用。

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As the subject of cognition, human beings have sensibility and rationality, so epistemology has its own contradiction: in the process of cognition, human sensory organs provide empirical materials for it, and human rational thinking makes abstract generalization. From the very beginning, the modern epistemological problems show two different tendencies: empiricism and rationalism.

The two tendencies of empiricism and rationalism have appeared among philosophers since ancient Greece, but they have not yet reached the stage of struggle. However, with the development of philosophy, the opposition between these two tendencies gradually unfolded. Heraclitus' empiricism was more prominent, while Pythagoras' rationalism was more prominent. However, it was not until the so-called cognitive approach was really involved that the direct opposition between empiricism and rationalism came into being.

First, the sharp opposition between protegra and Socrates, and then the opposition and struggle between democritus' empiricism and Plato's rationalism. Although some people have seen the one-sidedness of empiricism and rationalism respectively, they have not really overcome their own one-sidedness, which is finally reflected in Aristotle's vacillation between the two and his skepticism. In the middle ages, the opposition between empiricism and rationalism continued to exist in the form of nominalism and realism in scholasticism. The development of modern natural science makes people have to resort to mechanics, mathematics and other natural sciences which were more developed at that time when they used science and reason to understand the world. It is a pity that people did not combine experience with reason to establish scientific epistemology. Some people paid attention to the experiment of mechanics and the induction of experience, and made it absolute, forming the modern empiricism. Others put emphasis on the deductive method and also absolutized it, forming the modern rationalism.

It can be seen from the above that the root of the dispute between empiricism and rationalism lies in the contradiction between human perception and rationality as the subject of cognition.

The struggle between empiricism and rationalism is manifested in many ways, but can be mainly summarized in the following four aspects:

First, empiricism and rationalism advocate different cognitive methods. Empiricists emphasize the induction of experience from the principle of empiricism. From the basic standpoint of the source of genuine knowledge, rationalism emphasizes deductive reasoning on the method of cognition.

Second, whether to admit the idea of talent constitutes the center of the struggle between the two sides. Rationalism holds that certain principles and concepts, such as mathematical axioms, logical laws, moral principles, and the concept of god, are inherent in the human mind. Rationalists regard the "innate concept" as the cognitive ability formed in the long-term practice of human beings, which is accumulated through the heredity of species and "gifted" in the individual mind as the potential ability of tendency, endowment, habit or nature. Empiricism holds that there are no innate ideas at all, and all people's minds are completely flat and uniform "white boards". All ideas are images of external things in people's minds. In fact, the principles and ideas of natural endowments, as they are called by those who believe in natural endowments, are derived from experience, and can be reasonably explained by the principle that knowledge derives from experience.

Third, the two schools study epistemology from different perspectives. Empiricism emphasizes that the basis of cognition is experience, while materialist empiricism affixes to all human knowledge.

Fourthly, the two theories hold different views on the source and validity of knowledge. Empiricism presupposes the principle that "nothing in reason is without feeling", and holds that all genuine knowledge must originate from sensory experience. Without feeling, there is no knowledge, and sensory experience is the only reliable source. Rationalism takes rational intuition and rational deduction as the source of truth knowledge, and holds that "scientific knowledge cannot be acquired without spiritual intuition or deduction".

Empiricism and rationalism, almost involves all aspects of epistemology, but it is the essence of the materialist theory of reflection of the struggle against idealist apriorism, exactly is the materialist empiricism and idealism and rationalism of the debate, both struggle at the center of the problem is the origin of knowledge, as well as the position and role of the perceptual and the rational in understanding.

Not only are there antagonism and confrontation between the two schools of empiricism and rationalism, but there are also contradictions and struggles within the two schools. All these can be passed down as knowledge and many inspirations can be obtained from the research on them. They can be summarized as follows:

First, we should not oppose one kind of one-sidedness to another, let alone attack the correct content of the other side. The reason why empiricism and rationalism finally fall into error in the totality of epistemology lies in the fact that both parties are dominated by metaphysical methods of thinking. Therefore, to establish a correct world outlook, we must consciously master materialist dialectics, and avoid and oppose the metaphysical thinking method of static, one-sided and superficial thinking.

Second, we should not go to two extremes and pay attention to correct their one-sidedness. Empiricism and rationalism, is on a range of issues in their own insurmountable contradictions, to two extremes, finally appeared Hume to the end of the agnosticism denied to know itself, its root cause is from the viewpoint of social practice, and therefore, in the study of epistemology, go to overcome the two extremes must be firmly consciously practice point of view.

Third, insist on the dialectical thinking of sensibility and reason. From the gain and loss of empiricism and rationalism, we should insist on the dialectical thinking of sensibility and rationality. Fourth, empiricism and rationalism are not only a contest between materialism and idealism. Empiricism and rationalism in epistemology, almost involves all aspects of epistemology, but also other aspects of the philosophical problems are discussed, and the development of human knowledge is very profound, the influence of the later philosophy both positive, negative, how negative influence for a positive role, you need to many thoughts in a war between two of the specific analysis, in-depth discussion.

Finally, I would like to use a brief language at the end of this paper to make a summary of the enlightenment of this issue to us. The contradiction between the sensibility and rationality of the subject itself constitutes the long-standing contradiction and conflict between empiricism and rationalism in the history of philosophy. Empiricism is to do things based on experience, easy to make the wrong direction. Rationalism refers to the theory of doing things, dogmatism is prone to errors. Each of us, as the subject of cognition, integrates rationality and sensibility. The correct way is to combine theory with practice.

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