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College credit system

2019-01-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- College credit system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西方高校的学分制。学分制的产生和发展遵循一定的内在逻辑。学分制的产生源于德国的选修制,选修制被引入美国,在美国得到了发展和完善。而选修制在发展过程中所遇到的难题又有赖于英国导师制的帮助。因此,学分制是德、美、英三国教育理念和教育文化的结晶体。

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The emergence and development of credit system follow certain internal logic. The purpose of exploring the origin of things is to see through the essence of the credit system and the thought of university. As Robert b. eklund, jr., an American scholar, said, "studying the past for lessons or insights may be the most rewarding. Humans can only judge where they are now by where they were... We ignore history at the cost of not understanding ourselves. The credit system originated from the elective system in Germany, which was introduced into the United States and developed and improved in the United States. However, the difficulties encountered in the development of the elective system depend on the help of the British tutorial system. Therefore, credit system is the crystallization of education concept and education culture of Germany, America and Britain.

In the 18th century, German universities generally showed signs of decline and lost their foothold in society. Prussia's then education minister, William Humboldt thinks: "university is a supreme means, through it, Prussia to win respect from the world and around the world, so as to achieve the real enlightenment and spiritual world leader." The university of Berlin was born under the spirit of German rationalism.

In the early 19th century, European universities generally adopted the model of class organization. The curriculum, schedule and content selected by students are all arranged by the school, and students lack initiative and autonomy in learning. With the rapid development of social economy and science and technology, the unified training specifications and teaching management model have been difficult to meet the needs of reality. Humboldt, then President of the university of Berlin, advocated "freedom of teaching" and "the combination of teaching and scientific research" in the face of the severe situation of the whole European university education. Under the guidance of the new trend of thought, Humboldt initiated the "elective system" at the university of Berlin.

Thomas Jefferson created at the university of Virginia in 1825 and as President. Jefferson applied the ideas of academic freedom of Berlin university to teaching management. At the university of Virginia, students are allowed a certain amount of freedom to choose between courses offered by the eight departments of classical languages, modern languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, natural history, interpretation, and medicine, moral philosophy, and law. However, once a student has chosen a major, he or she is no longer allowed to choose a course in his or her respective department. The curriculum reform of the university of Virginia has triggered a reflection on the traditional education management system. Many American universities try to implement "parallel courses" and "partial courses". But at the same time, the early elective system was also opposed by conservatives. In 1828, Yale President John dey and Yale professor of Latin and Greek kingsley wrote the famous Yale report, which represented a resistance to the reform of the British classical traditional college. In 1827, quincy, then President of Harvard University, opposed the conservative idea and believed that the reform of elective system was reasonable and feasible. Under his initiative, in 1839, harvard allowed students to take courses such as science, modern languages, and history after their first year of college instead of the Latin and Greek required. Although quincy was a strong advocate of the elective system, he was not fully realized at that time when the country was in the civil war and the conservative power was strong.

In his inaugural address in 1869, Eliot, then the young President of Harvard University, declared that "the university shall make unremitting efforts to establish, improve and promote the elective system". Eliot took the elective system as the main approach to the modernization of harvard courses and gradually implemented it. In 1872, harvard abolished all the required courses for the fourth grade. In 1885, it greatly reduced the required courses for the first grade. In 1897, the required courses for the whole Harvard University were only for the first grade of rhetoric. At the same time, the number of new courses and new teachers increased. From 1870 to 1871, a total of 32 professors at harvard offered 73 courses for 643 students, and from 1910 to 1911, 169 professors offered 401 courses for 2,217 students. Thanks to Eliot's bold reforms, Harvard University has taken on a new look. Harvard's reforms were not without problems. In 1885, President McCosh of Princeton university and President porter of Yale university argued openly about the advantages and disadvantages of the system with Eliot. McCosh even mocked Harvard University in a public meeting. But this does not affect the learning system with its unique advantages and advanced nature in the United States to flourish, 1893, even the most conservative Yale university also canceled the compulsory courses of undergraduate 2 to 4 years.

In the late 19th century, after the comprehensive promotion of elective system in American universities, a new problem was encountered, that is, how to measure students' academic progress. In schools with elective system, students of the same department have different courses and learning progress, so the teaching management mode of academic year system is no longer applicable. In order to master the learning situation of students, and to review the enrollment, transfer, graduation and other matters, it is necessary to establish a unified standard to measure the learning situation of students. All credit systems emerge as a measurement unit to measure the learning amount of students' courses. In 1871, Harvard University published a list of all its courses, which were converted into "credits" based on the difficulty and time spent on each course. In 1872, the credit system was officially implemented in Harvard University. Whether a student can graduate or not depends on the lowest academic score he/she gets. Students can graduate in advance or later, which ensures students' freedom of learning. In the short 30 years since Eliot took office, the elective system and credit system have transformed harvard from a rather small local college into a modern university.

In 1903, a Harvard University credit system survey found that 55 percent of students took only entry-level courses. 75% of students don't have a center; Students rarely consider knowledge structure when choosing courses; The curriculum system is not systematic, appears fragmented. This kind of completely open and free elective system once led to the chaos of teaching, and students could not meet the requirements of "specialty", nor the purpose of "doctorate", which affected the quality of learning. In 1909, Lawrence Lowell replaced Eliot's harvard President position and a series of reform of the credit system. First, the establishment of professional and minor, centralized and distribution systems. That is, harvard undergraduates are required to focus on one major field in at least 6 out of 16 courses throughout the year to ensure focus; "Distribution" of at least six subjects in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences to ensure the universality of knowledge; Students are free to choose the rest of the course. Second, introduce the tutorial system. Thirdly, the honor degree system should be implemented.

Harvard University combined the German free elective system with the British tutorial system to form the unique characteristics of the American credit system. Lawrence's reform improved the credit system.

In 1933, he succeeded Lawrence as President of Harvard University and continued to reform the credit system. The focus of credit system changes from curriculum system to curriculum content. In 1943, konanke set up a special committee to study the general education curriculum reform. In 1945, the committee published a special report, general education in a free society, which divided education into general education and special education. College students should have the common knowledge foundation of human beings. The essence of general knowledge education is liberal arts education, which is the foundation of professional education. Harvard divides its courses into four groups: 1-99 lower level courses, 100-199 intermediate level courses, 200-299 advanced level courses, and 300-399 advanced level courses.

In 1971, the dean of harvard law school became President of Harvard University, and continued to reform the curriculum in order to improve the credit system. In 1977, Harvard University published the "core curriculum plan", and in 1981, it published the "public basic curriculum plan" and launched the "core curriculum system". The core curriculum system was basically formed. It requires all students to study basic knowledge in the five fields of literature, art, history, science, foreign culture and social analysis, accounting for one-third of the total credits. The entire core curriculum is set at 80-100 courses per year, with an average of 8-10 courses in each field. The core curriculum differs from the general education in that it does not require the acquisition of a set of great works and the digestion of a specified amount of information, but rather allows students to understand the ways and means of acquiring knowledge. At present, there are six courses in Harvard University: English writing, mathematical statistics, foreign languages, core courses, major courses and elective courses. Compared with general courses, core courses are more suitable for the rapid development of science and technology and The Times, indicating scientific methods and laws for the formation of college students' knowledge and ability.

From the university of Virginia principal Thomas Jefferson, the introduction of Germany's "elective system" to the President of harvard elliott implementation of credit system for the first time in 1872 at Harvard University, make the theory of free education is able to realize and has the specific units of "credits" quantitative indicators; Harvard University President Lawrence Lowell ? after the introduction of Britain "tutorial system", set up major and minor, make both pay attention to the students in the process of implementing credit system free elective, and there was a "mentor" of professional guidance, make an elective system under the credit system is not blind; Conan focus on general education courses, Derek ? blog launched the articles of association of the core curriculum, the focus of the credit system elaboration to the curriculum structure and curriculum content. The reform of all the presidents of American universities is based on the previous reform achievements, which is not only the collective wisdom of the presidents, but also the continuity of the credit system reform process. Based on this, the continuity of the reform is the core factor of the successful implementation of the credit system in Chinese colleges and universities.

The essence of education thought of credit system is "academic freedom", including the freedom of lecturing and research of university teachers and the freedom of learning of students. "Freedom to learn" means that students should have the freedom to choose what to learn, to decide when and how to learn, and to form their own ideas. Among them, the freedom of students to choose courses is at the core. Therefore, the credit system reform should follow the idea of academic freedom, and the core of its reform is to establish the whole system of free course selection. Simplify the course selection process, listen to students' Suggestions on course selection, and provide diversified course selection areas.

Kenanke reformed the credit system of Harvard University and changed his focus from the course system to the course content. In 1945, a special committee set up by konanke studied the curriculum reform of general education and published a special report "general education in a free society", which divided education into general education and special education. It is pointed out that college students should have the common knowledge foundation of human beings, and the essence of general knowledge education is liberal arts education, which is the basis of professional education. Harvard divides its courses into four groups: 1-99 lower level courses, 100-199 intermediate level courses, 200-299 advanced level courses, and 300-399 advanced level courses.

In 1977 and 1981, Harvard University published the "core curriculum plan" and "public basic curriculum plan" respectively, and launched the "core curriculum system". The core curriculum system was basically formed. It requires all students to study basic knowledge in the five fields of literature, art, history, science, foreign culture and social analysis, accounting for one-third of the total credits. The entire core curriculum is set at 80-100 courses per year, with an average of 8-10 courses in each field. The core curriculum differs from the general education in that it does not require the acquisition of a set of great works and the digestion of a specified amount of information, but rather allows students to understand the ways and means of acquiring knowledge. At present, there are six courses in Harvard University: English writing, mathematical statistics, foreign languages, core courses, major courses and elective courses.

Conant's reform paid attention to general education and focused on the breadth of course content. While Derek bok put the center of the elective system in the formation of students' knowledge system. Based on this, in the reform of the credit system of colleges and universities in China, the first thing is to establish a reasonable curriculum system for the curriculum setting, and the second thing is that the content of the curriculum should be based on the wide range of courses and core courses with depth and breadth.

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