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Prevention and control of air pollution in Britain

2019-01-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Prevention and control of air pollution in Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国大气污染的防治。1952年发生的伦敦烟雾事件,是英国20世纪十大环境公害事件之一。自此之后,英国政府通过完善相关法制、强化公众参与、重视经济手段构建出一个具有鲜明特色的英国大气污染防治模式,有效地改善了环境空气质量。英国大气环境相关法律不仅体系完备,且范围广泛,涵盖了大气污染和尾气排放的方方面面。

air pollution,英国大气污染的防治,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The 1952 London smog incident was one of the top 10 environmental hazards of the 20th century. Since then, the British government has effectively improved the environmental air quality by improving relevant legal system, strengthening public participation and emphasizing economic means to construct a distinctive British air pollution prevention model.

Britain is the first industrialized country in the world and also the first country to encounter environmental pollution incidents. In the 1950s, due to industrial production and residents living in London burning a large amount of coal and excessive emission of soot, the "London smog event" shocked the world, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths due to respiratory diseases, making this event one of the top 10 environmental pollution events in the 20th century. Since then, the British government from these mistakes and by taking effective measures to control the coal combustion, reducing emissions, now the air pollution has been brought under effective control, environment quality has been fundamental to improve, but also accumulated a lot of experience of the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, these experiences and lessons for guangdong governance haze weather brings a lot of enlightenment and reference.

After the London smog incident, the British government attached great importance to legislation to solve the problem of air pollution. Similar to China, the UK also adopted "terminal treatment" to deal with air pollution in the early stage. The city of London act was introduced in 1954 to control smog emissions. In 1956, the Clean Air Act, the world's first air pollution prevention and control act, was enacted, spreading the London governance model to the whole country. The law on industrial environmental health and safety stipulates that all polluting enterprises must take effective measures to prevent poisonous gases from being discharged into the atmosphere, or be severely punished. The air pollution control act provides for the right of the public to complain about environmental quality and limits on sulphur content in industrial fuels. These measures have effectively reduced soot and sulfur dioxide pollution from coal burning. In the 1970s, traffic pollution replaced industrial pollution as the primary threat to London's air quality. Therefore, the government introduced a series of measures, including prioritizing the development of public transport, curbing the number of private cars and reducing vehicle exhaust emissions, to seek to improve the city's air quality. In the 1990 s, the British began to seek to improve air environmental quality comprehensive measures, introduced the road vehicle lass, the Clean Air Act, the environmental law, the greater London government act, the pollution prevention and control act, and the climate change act, and a series of air pollution prevention and control act, to strict constraints of other emissions, setting clear penalties, to control the air pollution. At the same time, according to the environmental law issued in 1995, the UK began to formulate a national air quality strategy, stipulating that all cities should carry out air quality evaluation and review. For areas that fail to meet the standard, the government must set aside an air quality management area and force them to meet the standard within a specified period. Britain then suggested action plan for energy efficiency: the government, "the climate change action plan", "the sustainable development strategy", "low carbon building plan", "tax and subsidy scheme", "the British energy efficiency action plan 2007", the national renewable energy plan, and the low carbon transition plan and a series of plans and policy, actively improve the air environmental quality.

The UK's air environment laws are comprehensive and wide-ranging, covering all aspects of air pollution and emissions. It can be said that the process of air pollution control in the UK is a process of constant revision and improvement of relevant laws and regulations.

British citizens have a deep tradition of autonomy and strong social roots in the discussion, decision-making, supervision and implementation of environmental issues. The UK pays attention to protecting the public's right to know about the environment through legislation, and is the first country to inform the public of the real-time information of air governance. The official network publishes real-time air quality data for the London area, as well as hourly concentrations and weekly trends for individual pollutants. Nor is there an official monopoly on the way British citizens receive information about the air. Citizens can request data directly from government environmental agencies under the freedom of information act and should not be denied access. The government's UK air quality archive website and the London air quality network, a collaboration between civil society organisations and the king's college London environmental group, publish real-time air quality data for the London area. The government will never dare to accuse non-governmental monitoring organizations of being "illegal", "illegal" or "unscientific".

The UK not only attaches importance to achieving the goal of environmental governance through mandatory laws, but also attaches importance to promoting voluntary emission reduction by enterprises through economic means. Economic means to emphasize "who pollution, who management, who spend money", besides can increase government financial income and economic measures compared to the traditional administrative commands have continuous stimulation effect, through the internalization of environment cost, encourage people to adopt a more effective way to reduce environmental pollution, reduce pollutant amount, gradually formed voluntary governance reducing the pollution of the environment. Since the 1970s, the British government began to reduce the cost of environmental governance and improve the efficiency of environmental governance by levying environmental taxes, trading emission rights and introducing preferential tax policies. As a means of economic intervention, fiscal and taxation measures have obvious effects on improving the environmental quality of Britain.

Science and technology have played a key guiding role in Britain's fight against air pollution. The British government encourages enterprises to adopt the air pollution control technology to reform the production process, giving priority to the non-pollution or less pollution process, which is the fundamental way to prevent and control the air pollution. At the government level, the government actively organizes, guides and enterprises to adopt advanced production techniques. Through economic means to promote the voluntary adoption of advanced technology emission reduction enterprises to achieve internalization of environmental costs; By means of public participation and social incentives, enterprises are forced to eliminate outdated technologies and actively adopt better emission reduction technologies.

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