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Britain conquers India

2019-01-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Britain conquers India,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国征服印度。英国东印度公司在征服印度的过程中,采用了军事征服和政治征服两种策略,对军事征服的地区采取直接统治,政治征服的地区采取间接统治。这时候的东印度公司与土邦的关系演变为了从属合作关系,英国东印度公司在印度的最高权力地位逐渐树立起来。同时,这种附属同盟的间接统治形式也有效阻碍了印度人民的联合,阻碍了印度社会的进步。

Britain conquers India,英国征服印度,essay代写,作业代写,代写

In the process of conquering India, the British east India company adopted two strategies of military conquest and political conquest, which adopted direct rule over the areas under military conquest and indirect rule over the areas under political conquest. The choice of strategy is entirely in the interests of the UK and is not set in stone. This paper mainly explains the situation of the east India company's indirect rule over the Indian states by treaty from the end of 18th century to the beginning of 19th century, and mainly focuses on the British conquest of hyderabad, marat alliance and Mysore and other important regions.

In the process of the British east India company conquered India, due to the partition of India very finely, British people are unable to direct rule all conquered territory, so the British east India company according to campaign against British colonial rule and prevent the seal needs, based on the principle of respect for all independent, kept the size of a large number of feudal princes and their power, adopted a strategy of rule of direct and indirect simultaneously. Some native states with important economic and strategic interests became the territory under the direct rule of British India after being conquered by the British east India company. For the more common native states, the east India company signed by the military treaty "grant political conquer the strategy to strengthen control, such as forced through deployed troops or arrange stationed officer and other forms all handed over power to declare war or peace, and other national sovereignty, on the one hand, all with the outside, such as the French connection, to establish and maintain the supreme power of the British rule in India; On the other hand, it restricted the contact among the Indian maharajahs to avoid forming an alliance against Britain. In this way, the relationship between the east India company and the native states changed from an earlier "equal and reciprocal" alliance to a "subordinate and cooperative" relationship, and the British east India company gradually established its supreme power in India. At the same time, this indirect form of governance by subordinate alliances also effectively hinders the unity of the Indian people and hinders the progress of Indian society.

The east India company made use of the contradiction between hyderabad and marat to launch a war and defeated the marat, then signed a military subsidy treaty with hyderabad and controlled hyderabad's foreign sovereignty and internal financial management by sending stationing officers and supporting duwan. Hyderabad thus became a vassal of the English.

After the third anglo-mysore war, the east India company, hyderabad, and the marat alliance carved up the land that Mysore had ceded. But when the threat from their common enemy, Mysore, diminished, the alliance lost its footing with hyderabad. In 1795, hyderabad and marat fought a war, and hyderabad was forced to cede territory and pay war reparations after its defeat, losing its status as a south Indian power. So hyderabad wants to form an alliance with the British against the marat alliance. For the British east India company, Lord wilsley, who arrived in 1798, sought to realize the highest power of the east India company in India, claiming that "a broad system of alliances and political relations should be established in every region of Hindustan and deccan". Therefore, more emphasis should be placed on political conquest through contracting. At the same time, in order to provide sufficient resources for further military activities and take advantage of the contradiction between hyderabad and malat alliance, the east India company also has the intention to form an alliance with hyderabad. In September 1798, hyderabad signed a military grant treaty with the east India company and became a vassal state of the east India company. Under the agreement, nizam would have to demobilise all French officials and pay a stipend of 2,417,000 rupees to the British, who would control foreign relations and help provide six infantry battalions for the dependent army.

In February 1799, the British launched the fourth anglo-mysore war, hyderabad fought as a vassal, and the marat alliance supported the British in order to further divide Mysore. In May 1799, after the defeat of Mysore, hyderabad carved up a small piece of land from Mysore. In 1800, hyderabad signed a new agreement with the east India company, forming a long and comprehensive offensive and defensive alliance, which more clearly defined hyderabad's subordinate status. Under the new agreement, nizam's affiliated army added two infantry battalions and a cavalry regiment. At the same time, the British agreed to provide nizam with protection from enemies such as the marat. Nizam had to cede more territory to pay for its troops, and put hyderabad's dispute with the other native states in the hands of the British in order to avoid open armed conflict. In this way, hyderabad effectively lost part of its external sovereignty and could no longer independently exercise its foreign affairs power. In addition, the increase of the affiliated army unreservedly drained hyderabad's revenue, nizam had to accept the restrictions of the east India company financially, and its internal sovereignty was weakened. Will weasley in February 4, 1804 to hyderabad stationed officer sent the letter wrote: "in establishing the dependency of alliance with India's main native states, in a way the most basic principle is to make them form the dependence on the British, this act can be deprived of their rights, avoiding any risk to the safety of the British empire. This will allow us to maintain the stability of India while maintaining overall control over its native states, and it will also allow us to curb the restless ambitions and signs of violence that exist in the governments of various Asian countries. This fully reflects the purpose of establishing the subsidiary alliance system of the British east India company and their attitude towards the Turkish Allies.

Having gained control of hyderabad's foreign affairs, the British in 1803 took full control of domestic affairs by appointing a favoured diwan. When the British from nagpur and marat, people with rich berar province awarded to hyderabad, nizam Scandinavian total jia had to agree with the British people put forward the appointment of the mill ? alam as di wan's advice. Due to the same total jia and his successors have external and internal sovereignty have been deprived of, so they can only return to their own palace harem, to exert their influence in the manipulation of the palace factions. Mr Nizam's ties to turban affairs are frayed by Mr Devan's alliance with the despotic garrisons who control the state. It is a curious phenomenon, then, that the rulers of the Indian states do not participate in the actual management of their affairs, but are replaced by the british-backed devan.

After the east India company defeated Mysore, it installed the descendants of the former Hindu maharaja as its king, and controlled the internal and foreign affairs of Mysore by signing an agreement, making Mysore a vassal of the east India company.

After defeating Mysore in 1799, the east India company agreed to incorporate parts of Mysore into the company's expanding madras district, awarding other counties to its ally, hyderabad. Next, the British people will be reduced a domain, but in a more compact geographical Mysore returned to the haider ? ali usurp the previous firm family, fostering the original Hindu Kings seed is king. The British, in order to ensure the re-establishment of the dynasty's minor ruler's subordination, demanded that he remove all French influence from the country, and stipulated that mysal could not establish any contact with other foreign powers without prior notice and with the permission of the British. Another heavy constraint on Mysore's subordination was the annual payment of rs 2.45 million in ancillary gold to the east India company. This is reckoned to be equivalent to 57% of Mysore's revenues and 50% of Britain's total revenue from 198 tulle states. In order to ensure sufficient tax revenue to pay the supplementary fund, it also became one of the important reasons for the reform of the agricultural tax system in the land state kingdom represented by mysall. Later, the expansion of centralized rule in Mysore to individual semi-autonomous regions sparked the nagar riots of 1830 to 1831. For the next 50 years, the British continued to legitimize their control of Mysore by suppressing social disorder and unrest.

The east India company, taking advantage of the contradictions within the malat alliance, broke up all the kingdoms of malat and made contracts respectively through the second and third malat wars, completely conquered the malat alliance and set off a climax of the contract between the Indian native states and the British companies.

The long-standing conflicts among the tuarets within the marat alliance, together with the geographical dispersion of the tuarets, provided the guarantee for the success of the disintegration of the east India company. Once firmly in control of Mysore, the east India company again adopted a divide-and-rule strategy and began to negotiate separately with the various members of the marat alliance. Baroda was far from pune, the capital of marat, and an inheritance struggle in 1800 gave the east India company access to baroda. The Bombay weasley will sent by Alexander? Walker major command of an army of 2000 men, to fight for the throne baroda both parties for arbitration. In 1802, the east India company entered into a vassal league agreement with the new king, gaikwalder, in exchange for a piece of territory with an attached army forced on baroda. Walker became baroda's first British garrison officer, reorganized the local tax system and military establishment, disbanded the original Arab mercenaries, and strengthened the affiliated army. Meanwhile, in 1802 holka defeated the combined forces of peshwar and sindia. Palin what tile bagi ? rao ii to the British people for help, was forced to sign with the east India company bassey by treaty. Under the agreement, the British imposed on peshwar an auxiliary army of about 6,000 men from six battalions, to be paid for by a land grant of 2.6 million rupees. It demanded that peshwar submit his dispute with hyderabad and baroda to British arbitration, and that peshwar consult the British before engaging with other powers; Peshwar was barred from hiring any europeans hostile to Britain. So peshwar sacrificed his independence for the protection of the British. A few months later, the east India company met with sindia of gwalior and penssler of nagpur in the second marat war. While holka watched, the east India company used the conflict between sindia and penssler to divide the two countries. In December 1803, penslet signed the treaty of deogon with the British, ceding land to the British, promising to accept British mediation in the event of a conflict with peshwar or nizam in hyderabad, and the stationing of British garrisons in nagpur, before hiring europeans with British permission. Then, British and sheen to the signed shulgi - arkin, a treaty, ceded the north shore of the Ganges and Zhu Mu take river alluvial plain area and the deccan plateau between the territory, accept the UK subsidiary troops stationed and expenses, agreed to stationed officer stationed in, commitment without allowing British, don't hire any hostile to the europeans, and give up all claims of mughal emperor. After that, the British turned to attack holka. In 1806, the east India company signed a contract with holka.

After the end of the second marat war, the marat alliance had lost its position as a great power. Not only did all the kingdoms lose large areas of territory, but they also lost part of their sovereignty politically and were controlled by the British to some extent. At this point, the British east India company obtained the supreme position of power in India.

The feudal lords of the marat league were clearly unwilling to accept the British as the masters of India. So a second marat, after the war, Mr Watt bagi ? rao ii is plotting to joint sheen, hole card and friends, jointly revolted against the British in 1817. But the marat were so weak that the coalition was quickly routed by the British. In June and November 1817, the east India company signed the pune treaty with peshwar and the gwalior treaty with sindia. Later, the east India company signed treaties with holkar and penssler successively, annexed some territories, set up British garrison officers, stationed British troops, and stipulated that they could not communicate with other princes. In June 1818, after peshwar's surrender, governor Lord Hastings took this opportunity to announce the abolition of the post of "peshwar" as a symbol of the national unity of the marat people, annexed the territory of peshwar, and handed over some of the territory to the descendants of shivaki to establish satara state.

The third marat war, from 1817 to 1818, led to the complete collapse of the marat alliance. Some of the territories were annexed into the Bombay region, and some were retained as subsidiary states of the east India company. During this period, the east India company also successively defeated and allied with the pintan and the pintan people who made a living from plunder in central India. So when Mysore and marat were conquered by the British, the Indian maharajahs changed their wait-and-see attitude and rushed to sign up with British companies. From 1818 to 1823, there was a climax of the treaty of confederation. Over the course of five years, 20 rajputana princes, 145 maharajahs from central India, and 145 minor maharajahs from the katiava peninsula all entered the system of patronage alliances. At this time, a group of young princes from orissa and south India also accepted the treaty of confederation. At this point, through a series of military conquests and political means in the 18th and early 19th centuries, the vassal system of the east India company and the native Indian states was established. The indo-british government became the supreme authority over a vast territory stretching from the Himalayas to cape comorian, from the sutrij river to the Brahmaputra river.

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