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The development of American online bank

2018-12-04 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The development of American online bank,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国网络银行的发展。随着第一家网络银行在美国诞生,网络银行从兴起、衰退,再到现在的振作,经过了几个重要的发展阶段。美国网络银行的风险控制能力在此过程中得到了很大的加强;并购与扩张以及网络技术人性化发展将成为其进一步发展的重点;不久的将来,美国网络银行的发展有望出现新的突破。

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At present, about 48% of high-income families in the United States use online banking services, which is 25 to 30% higher than the general level of society. This batch of high income online customers can be roughly divided into two levels, one is to accept online investment banking clients, over investment in online customers is relatively rich in high-income people, median household income is about $78460, 34% of households have $250000 of investment assets, more than 50% of those under 40 years old, 70% completed four years of university education. The second is to accept online retail banking services to customers. These customers are high earners in income in the less layer, most of them are younger and have received good education, median household income of about $63860, 21% of these households have investment assets of $250000, 55% of households were under the age of 40, 56% of households have completed the four-year college education, the overall quality than investment online customer base.

Online banking services in the United States started early, and the rapid development of large Banks such as wanguobaotong and bank of America is not strong, but small local Banks. Two local Banks, WellsFargo and ZionsBancorp, are among America's leading online Banks. WellsFargo is listed on the New York stock market and currently has a market value of 66 billion us dollars. It is one of the major regional Banks in North America. Currently, the market share of WellsFargo in online banking is as high as 20%. Over the past five years, the bank has grown its online customer base by 140 per cent a year, making it one of the largest Banks in the us with the largest online personal and corporate customer base.

A wave of mergers at many of America's biggest Banks resurfaced in 2004. The mergers of Bank of America and Fleet Boston, j.p.morgan Chase and Bank One, Regions Financial and Union Planters have led to significant expansion of these large banking networks. Bank of America, for example, now has more than 5,500 retail branches in 29 states. The deregulation of the 1990s reinforced these changes. In particular, the riegel-neal Act of 1994, which allowed Banks to set up branches and merge across states, ushered in a new era of mergers that focused on reducing costs and promoting profitability. As a result, the number of U.S. commercial and savings Banks fell from 12,500 in 1994 to about 8,000 at the end of 2006. The number of Banks declined but the number of branches increased. The combination of the two led to greater integration of branches and deposits in the larger commercial and savings Banks in the United States. In 1994, medium-sized branch networks and large branch networks accounted for 53 percent of total deposits and 46 percent of total branches nationwide. By mid-2006, the number had risen to 65 per cent of total deposits and 55 per cent of total branches, and much more consolidation had occurred in large branch networks, particularly those with more than 1,000 branches -- what we call "mega-scale" networks. These networks had nearly 20,000 branches in June 2003, up sharply from 9,200 in 1994. The mega-branch network now accounts for 28% of all bank branches in America.

To maintain its low operating costs, network Banks will outsource a considerable part of their business. For example, Telebanc will outsource the Internet communication system, website maintenance, check processing and business data and image processing, and only retain the core business of product development, customer call service center, marketing and asset acquisition. Net.bank outsources management of personnel, accounting and law. In order to rapidly increase the variety of business at a low cost, most network Banks also cooperate with many online financial service suppliers. Therefore, in fact, many of the businesses provided by network Banks are not operated by themselves, but are outsourced, and they only receive commissions. For example, for online Loan approval and credit application businesses, online Banks simply transfer these customer needs to some third-party online financial business operators behind the scenes through electronic channels, such as e-loan, which is specialized in online mortgage processing. First USA for online credit CARDS, Check Free for online checks, and E*Trade for online stock transactions. In this way, through the cooperation of most online Banks with multiple financial service suppliers, their business varieties will be rapidly increased at a lower cost.

The risk control system of network Banks in the United States mainly consists of two parts, that is, the network Banks themselves control the technology and business and the supervision of financial regulatory authorities on network Banks. It can be seen that this is basically a complete network bank risk control system that combines internal and external control, combines technology and business, and is guided by financial supervision. In October 1999, the us Treasury general office of monetary supervision issued the "director's manual -- Internet banking business" requirements of the network Banks risk control points. The agencies responsible for regulating Internet Banks are the office of the comptroller of the currency, the federal reserve, the Treasury office of thrift supervision, the federal deposit insurance corporation, the national credit union, and the federal financial institutions inspection board. All this suggests that America's online Banks have tightened their grip on risk.

Since its emergence, network Banks have been faced with the problems of management strategy risk, encryption technology risk, cluster system coordination risk, especially network security risk. At the same time, under the conditions of network finance, the emergence of virtual currency makes network Banks face more uncertainties: on the one hand, the credit expansion ability of commercial Banks is enhanced, and the speed of money circulation is accelerated through online transactions; On the other hand, sudden transactions may cause network Banks liquidity risk. Therefore, the proportion of insurance cost in the transaction cost of network Banks will not be lower than that in the transaction cost of traditional Banks. Based on the risk of network banking, it is particularly important to protect the property right integrity of financial assets agreed in the transaction contract by formulating relevant laws and regulations to define the rights and obligations of online customers and Banks. It is worth noting that the financial transaction contracts involved in network banking business are usually difficult to determine the place of signing and the place of performance, so it is difficult to determine the jurisdiction over the contracts. The promulgation of relevant laws and regulations should not only take into account the national legal standards, but also take into account the international usability. In this way, the establishment of a series of laws and regulations that meet the needs of the development of network Banks and can reasonably arbitrate property disputes and punish the behaviors that damage property rights under the existing legal framework of our country cannot be accomplished overnight, and a lot of time needs to be spent on investigation and analysis to pay for the high initial cost of legal framework.

From 1998 to 2003, network Banks in the United States performed poorly in recent years. E*TRADE Bank is the third largest online trading company in the world. Its online Bank E*TRADE Bank is the largest pure online Bank in the United States. In 2000, however, the company's share price fell by 70% in value. Net income in the first quarter of 2001 was $3.3 billion, down 21% from $4.17 billion a year earlier. Account and $3.98 billion in assets at the end of 2000, with 2000 of America's largest Compu in Houston, one of the network Bank of Bank of pure network Bank, the report says, lost $26.2 million last year, in January this year fired 10% of workers, and sell it in March 50000 customers to Atlanta Net Bank USA. Bancshares, one of the first pure Internet Banks to open in the us, had a net loss of $9.7m last year, three times as much as in 1999 and a net loss of $1.7m a share. Lighthouse Bank in Massachusetts, which invested $25m to set up an online bank last year, lost $751,000 in the first quarter of this year and is preparing to sell its network.

Confidential transaction data is stolen or changed, account funds are misappropriated, or even tampered with accounts by hackers who illegally break into the network system. How to establish a set of network security system and ensure the network security effectively is a difficult problem to be solved in the development of network Banks. Although a control system has been developed internationally to ensure the security of network systems, it can isolate the internal network of Banks from the external public network. But the hacker was able to penetrate the firewall invasion of the banking system, through the computer network virus is a computer virus through the computer network security mechanism, intrusion network server, which infect the entire computer network, the network by reducing work efficiency or the network paralysis, these problems about network risk or a small-scale operations. According to relevant data introduction, on July 26,1998, CIH0 virus of network of a kind of originating Taiwan campus invades INTERNET, a few hours later, virus spreads around on the net, make the 6000 many workstations that connects with this network and host stop to run, its evil mark spreads over the United States, Japan, Germany, France to wait for a lot of countries, economic loss is close to 100 million dollars.

At present, the most important thing for the expansion and acquisition of American network Banks is to see how they restructure their assets, especially the trend of "super-large" network Banks and small and medium-sized network Banks. The median number of branches acquired in a new market by a bank with an extremely large branch network is significantly lower than the median number of branches with 1,000 or less branches. According to the relevant survey, Banks with 100-500 branches, among which the share ratio of 15%. Banks with an oversize branch network have a 40 per cent share. The results showed that Banks with medium-sized branch networks were most interested in expanding into new markets, while those with very large networks were rarely willing to extend their geographical footprint. The analysis shows that there will be significant strategic differences between small and medium-sized Banks and large Banks. Banks with more than 500 branches, especially the super-large Banks, will pursue a strategy of slower growth of branch network. They will have a relatively high share of branch transactions in the market with both acquisition and transfer, and have less incentive to expand into relatively new markets. Banks with very large branch networks tend to pursue a strategy of regrouping or "rebalancing" their branch share within existing markets. By contrast, Banks with a medium-sized network of 100-500 branches are clearly pursuing an expansion strategy. These Banks have a higher growth rate of branch networks, their branch activities are more focused on acquisitions, and their branch transactions are more conducted in new markets and acquisition markets. A period of temporary stagnation rather than permanent decline in the growth of large Internet Banks. Indeed, signs of m&a activity also indicate that banking institutions expect to reap additional benefits from further growth and geographical expansion of their branch networks. At the very least, the continued growth of medium-sized branch networks is a sign of the growing interest of these banking institutions to become active providers of retail banking services.

From 1997 to 2003, the development of network bank in the U.S. are at a relatively sluggish phase, but after 2002, with the combination of network bank and traditional bank, the service network bank and traditional bank have the complement each other, at the same time as the rise of the wave of mergers and acquisitions, the network bank to cheer up, whether in technology, business channels and operating model above have a basis to construct the network, so in the next few years, the network bank will be on the technical and management way is likely to be a breakthrough to obtain a bigger development. In addition, with the growth of network technology in the 1990s, the younger generation is now gradually equipped with certain economic capacity, they will be accustomed to e-commerce and network banking services, so the number of customers of network Banks in the United States should be a breakthrough trend, in the next few years, there will be a big development of network Banks in the United States.

Technology, science and technology, saving management costs become the network bank is the most direct, the most competitive advantage, but the cold machine can meet the prestige clients especially big customer, so one to one or more human network technology will be one of the focuses of the network bank development, the network bank is trying to promote technology human nature instead of human technology, it is the trend of the development of the network bank long in the United States.

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