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Think tanks in the United States

2018-12-03 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Think tanks in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的思想库。自威尔逊开辟了向思想库咨询的传统以来,之后几乎历届总统都要借助思想库的创新思想来打造美国未来的蓝图。在多年的发展和演变中,美国思想库对公共政策的制定和美国社会的方方面面发挥着巨大的影响力,而这种影响力正是通过美国思想库所承担的具体角色和功能体现出来的。美国思想库的教育功能包括对社会精英和大众两方面的教育,而且其受众不仅限于本国,也面向国际。

Think tank,美国思想库,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Since Woodrow Wilson became the President of the United States in 1913 and opened to the think tank of traditional, almost every President since with the help of a think tank of innovative ideas to build the blueprint for the future. Over the past 100 years of development and evolution, the American think tank has exerted great influence on the formulation of public policy and various aspects of American society, which is reflected by the specific role and function of the American think tank.

Specifically, the influence of the us think tank is mainly reflected in its four functions: setting policy agenda, conducting policy education, building a bridge between "knowledge" and "power", and promoting "second track" diplomacy.

The functions of American think tank in setting the policy agenda include the definition of the policy agenda and the framework of policy recommendations. On the one hand, the think tank helps the government to have a clear understanding of the complex domestic and diplomatic problems it faces and to identify the problems that need to be solved urgently. On the other hand, it puts forward new ideas and specific policy options for the government. In addition, think tanks focus not only on the current urgency of the problem, but also on the future development trend; It not only puts forward new policies, but also criticizes and improves existing policies.

The heritage foundation's 1,093-page 1980 "the duties of a leader" became an important manual for the Reagan administration, setting out the blueprint for its internal and external policies and having a major impact in the 1980s. Hoover institution in the late 1970s and late 1980s respectively wrote and published two long volumes, "America in the 1980s" and "America in the 1990s," which set out the domestic and foreign policy propositions available to the United States. The institute for progressive policy research designed the Clinton administration's change plan in the early 1990s, which recommended that the government take a "third path." Is different from the traditional liberal, it is also different from the conservative party, which put forward a set of recovery in the American economic policy options, such as strong support for enterprise and national investment, encourage competition, open markets, encourage job creation, to encourage exports, the federal budget, tax policies and education reform policies, health care, etc., which many proposal adopted by the Clinton administration, for the U.S. economy in the 90 s of the last long time contributed to the prosperity. The policy suggestion function of the American think tank is not only reflected in these grand policy plans, but also reflected in the forward-looking thinking on some specific issues and specific implementation plans. In 1948, the brookings institution established the famous "Marshall plan" policy plan with cross-era influence.

The education function of the American think tank includes education for both the social elite and the public, and its audience is not only limited to the country, but also to the international. Through publishing books and reports, expressing opinions and articles in the media, the think tank interprets domestic and international issues and public policies, and holding various public meetings, it has potentially cultivated public enthusiasm for political participation and understanding of public policies, and objectively assumed the functions of policy education and political socialization. In addition, the American think tank plays the role of policy education for elite personnel by organizing various training programs for government managers.

After "9.11" incident in the first place, at the brookings institution published book terrorist organizations and the United States foreign policy, timely and in-depth analysis of the anti-terrorism policy to the situation, determine the necessary factors and puts forward the specific strategies. The book is called "a guide to the development and implementation of counter-terrorism policies". Within months, the book had sold tens of thousands of copies and was widely cited in the media for its policy views. The education audience of the policy of American think tank is not only limited to the domestic audience, but also to the global audience. For example, the brookings institution and the international peace foundation have set up a policy research center and a Chinese website in China. One of their purposes is to promote American policy concepts and conduct policy education to Chinese audiences.

In terms of policy training, the American think tank has a long history. The institution's predecessor, the institute of government, has had education training for government personnel since its inception. In addition to the brookings institution, the Kennedy school of government at Harvard University has been holding training sessions for newly elected members of congress and incoming government officials. The heritage foundation has also run such courses since 1994, challenging harvard directly and taking a large share of the market. In addition, the centre for strategic and international studies has established a government transition training programme to facilitate the smooth entry of new administration officials into government management roles.

The American think tank not only trains talents for the next government, but also provides a channel and possibility for the knowledge of the "opposition" to be transferred into power. It also provides an opportunity and platform for the former government officials to recuperate and re-enter the country. The American think tank provides scholars with a stage for close contact with policy makers and the best environment for policy research, which enables them to understand not only policy research, but also political reality.

The administration of the United States is a typical "one emperor and one courtier". Each new election is accompanied by a major change of government. The President is elected every four years, involving more than 4,000 officials. Senior cabinet members, such as government ministers, are not elected by parliamentary committees and rarely come from civil servants. They come from an elite think tank, which is quite different from that of European countries and China. After the formation of the Obama administration, more than 30 people from the brookings institution entered the government for politics. A large number of scholars from the center for international strategic studies, the council on foreign relations and the center for American progress also entered the Obama administration. Through the bridge provided by the American think tank, think tank scholars with a large amount of professional knowledge have successfully transformed knowledge into power.

Every time a new President takes office, in addition to a large number of scholars from think-tanks, many former government officials also enter the think-tanks to do research work. For example, Henry paulson, who served as Treasury secretary in the bush administration, left the administration to join Johns Hopkins university as a visiting fellow, and Elaine chao, former labor secretary, joined the heritage foundation as an honorary fellow. The reason why the us think tank is willing to hire these former government officials is that they can bring experience and insight to serve in the government, and it is also conducive to the credibility of the think tank in the policy field. Third, and often overlooked, is to provide these people with an environment and platform to once again transform knowledge and power. In the process of "knowledge" and "power" transformation, the bridge function undertaken by the American think tank endows it with special status and great public opinion power.

The "second track" is a special channel between official diplomacy and pure non-governmental communication, which is characterized by non-official and conscious influence on official decision-making. Foreign the concept of "the second track" in 1982 by the American diplomat Joseph monte will put forward for the first time, refers to the organization or in the presence of conflicts or disputes countries ask an unofficial, informal contact and interaction. Its purpose is to solve conflicts by finding strategic methods, influencing public opinion and organizing human and material resources. By virtue of its special relationship with official decision-making and its own unofficial status, the us think tank plays a unique and important role as a diplomatic channel of the "second track" in international politics.

At present, as international exchanges and interdependence deepen, urgent global issues and a number of international affairs must be addressed through transnational organizations. As an important part of track ii diplomacy, the think tank is a platform for domestic and international exchanges and plays an important role in bilateral and multilateral foreign affairs. The think tank conducts cooperative research on some major issues concerning the interests of both sides, sometimes serving as a "booster" behind the scenes to promote bilateral relations. Take china-us relations as an example. In September 2005, us deputy secretary of state Robert zoellick for the first time publicly expressed the hope that China would become a "responsible stakeholder". In fact, a week before Mr. Zoellick publicly raised the concept of "stakeholder," Mr. Zoellick's speech was presented to the brookings institution with a number of targeted recommendations for change. After zoellick's speech, "stakeholder" became a buzzword and brought many different interpretations. Brookings institution sent senior researchers to China to contact relevant institutions, explain to them and listen to China's response. On December 8, 2005 zoellick and dai bingguo held in Washington for the second time "sino-us strategic dialogue", prior to the talks, the brookings institution, done a lot of preparation work, researchers sent to China, held talks with China's research institutions, the think-tank respectively, later put talks on both sides of the results report to dai and Mr Zoellick, makes the strategic dialogue was very successful.

Through the implementation of "track 2" diplomacy, the us think tank has become a power institution with significant influence on domestic and international policies from a policy research institution independent of the government and without the legitimacy of the policy.

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