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The development of American express industry

2018-11-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The development of American express industry,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国快递业的发展。现代快递业首先在美国诞生。美国快递业在工业革命及工业化进程中崛起,在信息经济时代繁荣。在漫长的发展历程中,美国快递业经历了运输方式的变革、商业模式的变迁,在变革中不断发展壮大,最终确立了国内的寡头竞争格局以及在国际竞争中的领先地位。

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The modern express industry was first born in the United States. The express industry in the United States rose in the industrial revolution and the process of industrialization and flourished in the age of information economy. In the long course of development, the express delivery industry in the United States has experienced the transformation of transportation mode and business model. After several trials and hardships, the express industry has been developing and growing in the transformation, and finally established the domestic oligarchic competition pattern and the leading position in the international competition. China's express delivery industry originates from the growth of foreign trade demand in the early stage of reform and opening up. Although it has gradually taken shape in the accumulation of more than 30 years and gradually started to step forward into the international market, it is still inferior to European and American countries in terms of the absolute market capacity. Based on the similarity between the evolution trend of express delivery in China and the United States to a certain extent, the development experience of express delivery industry in the United States is worth our reference.

In the 2012 fortune 500 list of express delivery enterprises, USPS ranked 135 with revenue of 65.7 billion us dollars. UPS ranked 177th with revenue of $53.1 billion. Fedex FedE x ranked 263 with $39.3 billion in revenue. Deutsche post, which bought DHL, was in 98th place. More importantly, DHL, UPS and FedEx, which currently dominate the international express market, were all born in the us.

The American express industry, whether in the international market or the domestic market, has formed a highly concentrated industrial structure. UPS dominates the us ground delivery market, with 61 per cent of the market in 2011, followed by FedEx with 18 per cent. In the us market, UPS has a much higher market share than FedE x, but FedE x's aviation revenue is much higher than UPS. FedEx was the leader in the American air express market from 2001 to 2012, and its contribution of overnight business revenue to its total express revenue remained above 70%. FedE x had a 51% share of the air express market in 2011. In the domestic international express market in the United States, FedEx has the advantage in the aviation field, accounting for 61% of the market, followed by UPS and DHL. Oligopoly market structure and extremely high industrial concentration, but relatively dispersed buyers and weak bargaining power directly lead to high service prices in the American express market. However, this is also a reflection of the mature market, after all, price is the guarantee of service quality.

The development of express industry in the United States is also the history of transportation and retail industry. Every change in mode of transportation and business model will lead the development of express industry to another path. The Railway Express Agency, the king of Express delivery in the Railway era, went bankrupt when the road era entered a period of great development because it had been excessively dependent on its Railway transportation lines. UPS, which once lived in the gap, seized the development opportunity of the highway express age, built the national network, and realized the gold unicom, and finally firmly occupied the domestic market of the United States. FedE x was able to achieve success because it grasped the opportunity of the development of air express. FedEx was founded in 1971 and didn't turn a profit until 1975. It took two years of lobbying congress to get approval for large cargo aircraft and has since grown. DHL, which was established at the same time with FedEx, foresaw the general trend of manufacturing globalization at the very beginning, aimed at the international market at the very beginning of its establishment, and finally established its absolute dominant position in the international express market. It can be seen that differentiated positioning and seizing the market development opportunities are crucial to the development of enterprises.

Enterprises that can constantly adapt to the changes of economic and social development and seek development opportunities in the changes of development can be invincible in competition. When UPS was founded in 1907, its main business was telegraph transmission service in the same city, that is, B2C of information flow in the same city. However, with the popularity of telephone in American families, telegraph business gradually declined, and UPS was forced to make the first transformation. After the business transformation, UPS operates the same city B2C of the department store industry. It took UPS 38 years to become macy's delivery partner, but the popularity of family cars has once again transformed the company. The advent of the highway era gave UPS a new direction, and the laying of the national network finally made UPS the king of the continental United States. UPS has experienced UPS and downs in its development process of more than 100 years. It ADAPTS to the changes of transportation mode and business model, and has been struggling for survival in the process of reform.

Based on the development experience of the United States and the current situation of China's express delivery market, the trend of enterprise restructuring and brand integration in the express delivery market is inevitable in the future. Relying solely on price wars, it is difficult for enterprises to gain a foothold in the fierce market competition. Only the implementation of differentiation strategy, clear brand positioning is the fundamental way out.

In 1907, UPS was deeply trapped in the monopoly pattern of the four major express delivery enterprises in the domestic market. Only by implementing differentiated positioning and carrying out B2C business of information flow in the same city could it finally find a way out. Founded in 1967, DHL implemented the international express road strategy, which was different from the market positioning of UPS and successfully established its international competitive advantage. In 1971, FedE x was founded and differentiated itself into the air express market. Only after obtaining the cargo permit for large aircraft did its business gradually get on the right track. China's international parts market is firmly occupied by international express companies, sf express is a unique company in the domestic business parts market, EMS dominates the domestic business parts market, and online express market tends to complete competition. Harvard business school professor Michael Porter pointed out that cost priority and differentiated positioning are two basic strategies for enterprises to gain competitive advantages. Only by clarifying their own advantages, repositioning themselves according to the current situation of market development, and formulating differentiation strategies suitable for their own development, can enterprises find their own way out in the fierce market competition. In this process, enterprises should avoid duplication, abandon the price reduction strategy, identify core customers, provide services according to customer needs, and increase their core competitiveness. Express delivery enterprises with high network coverage throughout the country can use the completeness of their networks to provide door-to-door services for customers in various regions. But only in the large and medium-sized cities have outlets enterprises can provide overnight, 24-hour delivery and other high-speed high-quality services. Enterprises specializing in online shopping express services should focus on ensuring the integrity of goods and the efficiency of delivery.

Define the market positioning, and then carry out brand building, as long as any enterprise can occupy a place in the industry, the brand building step is indispensable. Only by establishing their own brands can they differentiate themselves from the products and services provided by other enterprises. Compared with differentiated positioning, brand building is a step forward. Differentiated positioning can increase the cost and difficulty for competitors to imitate and attract special customer groups. However, once an independent brand is established, once its brand is recognized, brand loyalty will be formed, which will be more conducive to the formation of competitive advantages of enterprises. The brand of express delivery enterprises is not only a symbol, but also a commitment to customers. This commitment comes down to "deliver the goods to the destination safely and without damage at the fastest speed and as far as possible". UPS's "best service, lowest price", sf express's "positive, innovative, pragmatic, dynamic", FedE x's "mission must be achieved, everywhere" have greatly promoted the development of the enterprise. UPS had 8.8 million customers in 2012, generating $54.1 billion in revenue. FedEx was fortune's tenth most-admired company in 2012. Sf express also has a large number of loyal customer groups in China's domestic express market.

According to the statistics of China post in 2013, there were 137,351 valid complaints in China's express delivery industry in 2012, an increase of 177.7% over 2011. The number of complaints about express delivery delays reached 63138, accounting for 46% of the total. The large number of delays reflected the low efficiency of enterprises in sorting and distribution. The number of complaints of loss, loss, damage and illegal charges was 21993, 8,273 and 1,213 respectively, which would be even larger if complaints were added to the statistics.

The loss, lack and damage are largely caused by violent sorting and delivery, while illegal charges directly reflect the general low quality of express employees. Low market concentration leads to low price competition, which directly leads to low service quality. As a service industry, express delivery industry cannot improve the speed of employees, which is bound to affect the development speed of the whole industry. To improve the efficiency of sorting and distribution, it is necessary to establish an efficient and orderly delivery mechanism, which can refer to the international express delivery company or the large B2C model with its own logistics system. To improve the quality of employees, on the one hand, it is necessary to establish an excellent corporate culture, on the other hand, it is also necessary to strengthen the vocational training of employees. In the future industrial integration, improving the sorting, transportation efficiency and employee quality has become the inevitable choice for every enterprise to build the competitive edge.

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