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The internal management system of American universities

2018-11-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The internal management system of American universities,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的高校内部管理体制。高校内部管理体制指的是高校内部的组织结构体系,包括高校内部行政权力与学术权力的相互关系、机构设置和管理权限的划分以及规范内部管理运行的制度。美国的高等教育虽然历史不悠久,但是其发展速度相当迅速,在短时间内就实现了高等教育大众化,并且高等教育的质量也相当高。美国高等教育的快速发展,与其高效与科学的内部管理体制分不开,有了高效和科学的管理,才能够促进高等院校更好的运作。

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The United States is the most economically developed country in the world, as well as one of the most developed countries in the world higher education. Although the history of higher education in the United States is not long, its development speed is quite rapid, it has achieved the popularization of higher education in a short time, and the quality of higher education is also quite high, which is called "the center of world higher education". The United States has the world's most complex and sprawling higher education system, with a large number of nonprofit and for-profit private colleges and for-profit colleges. The rapid development of education in the United States cannot be separated from the efficient and scientific internal management system. Only with efficient and scientific management can the institutions of higher learning operate better.

The internal management system of colleges and universities refers to the internal organizational structure of colleges and universities, including the interrelationship between administrative power and academic power, the establishment of institutions, the division of administrative authority and the regulation of internal management operation.

American colleges and universities can be divided into public and private schools. Public schools are set up by the government, and their funds mainly come from government grants, tuition fees, scientific research funds obtained from the government, property rental, etc. The funds of private schools mainly come from tuition fees, alumni donations and the income from running school funds.

The internal management system of American universities is a three-layer structure system including the school, the school and the department. The administrative work and daily management of the university are all infiltrated into the executive power of the board of directors and the university, which is independent of the activities of professors and resides in it.

The board of directors is at the highest level of the organizational system. The chief executive under the board of directors is the principal, who is responsible to the board of directors for the management of school affairs. Under the whole university level administrative organization is the college, such as liberal arts college, medical school, law school, business school, etc., while the department is the lowest level unit organized by the private university, which is a community and the most basic administrative position. Board of directors is the legal owner of the university, is the highest decision-making body of the school and the highest authority, the board of directors is mainly composed of outside people, mostly in the form of funding universities representatives, government officials, business leaders, celebrities, alumni representatives, school teachers and student representatives, less then 7 8, more than 70 a, 80. When selecting board members, most private universities follow the principle of self-perpetuating, in which current board members select future board members. Both the chairman and the director are appointed by a term of three to five years. Its basic responsibility lies in the external management of the school, the formulation of the school's major guidelines and policies, to ensure the effective management and healthy development of the school.

The President is the chief executive of the university. He is responsible for the daily affairs of the university. After the principal takes office, he appoints a number of vice-principals, deans and department heads who are in charge of various affairs of the school, and forms a hierarchical management system with various duties and responsibilities. In American universities, presidents, provosts, deans and department heads constitute a main line of school administration. Other administrative departments, such as teaching and research, financial management, human resources, student affairs and logistics, are service organizations. The principal is the chief executive officer under the board of directors, who is responsible for the school's affairs and reports to the board. Principals play a role in the development of school policies, arrangements for collaboration, legal advice, liaison with state legislatures or federal agencies, and exchange information with boards. Generally, universities in the United States have one or several vice-presidents in charge of education, research, foreign affairs and other aspects. Among them, the vice-presidents in charge of education, research or the provost is the most valued. To put forward the suggestion of teacher appointment, and finally decide the appointment and removal of dean and dean in practical sense; Responsible for the development of education plans including education content, methods, education funds, student Numbers, teacher provision, education facility utilization, student performance evaluation, etc.

The college council or the faculty council is an institution where teachers participate in the decision-making of important academic issues at the school level. Generally speaking, the responsibilities of the college board or the college board mainly include determining the course plan, determining the admission criteria and degree criteria for undergraduate and graduate students, determining the use of various teaching and scientific research facilities, formulating personnel policies for teachers and academic planning, etc. The senate or the professorship usually has standing committees dealing with various academic matters, such as the compulsory course committee, the academic planning committee, the scientific research committee, the teaching work committee and so on. In addition, AD hoc committees are organized to deal with special temporary issues. When the task was completed, the commission was withdrawn. In general, teaching, scientific research and other related academic work in higher academic universities is mainly considered and decided by the council or the faculty. A council or assembly of professors has a higher status and function.

American university internal management structure of the upper school level, its main characteristic is that people outside of the board of directors is the legal authority in the university, responsible for college education in general, not involved in the internal management of the school, the exercise of the highest and ultimate power of university management, the board of directors is one of the important channels, and strengthen the school and social ties make school direction more adapt to the social needs, at the same time the social effect on the supervision of the school; The administrative system headed by the President exercises the daily administrative power of the university according to the authorization of the board of directors, decides major policy issues related to the development of the school, and deals with the relationship between the school and the board of directors, the school and the government, and the school and the society. The President of a private university is appointed by the board of directors and is responsible to the board of directors. The faculty council or faculty council is responsible for the decision-making of the university's academic affairs.

Thus, in the upper part of the university's internal management structure, the board of directors, the administrative system and the power structure of the council or the assembly of professors are divided and governed.

The college is the middle of the three-tier internal management structure of private universities in the United States. Private universities in the United States generally consist of a variety of colleges, such as Harvard University has 9 colleges, Stanford university has 8 colleges. There are liberal arts colleges and medical, law, business, engineering, education and other colleges. The liberal arts college usually undertakes the basic education task for both undergraduate and graduate students, and is composed of disciplines of humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. As a central and fundamental college of the university, the faculty of arts and sciences generally has a dean for undergraduate education and a dean for graduate education. The dean of a liberal arts college is usually appointed by the university's top officials and works as a member of the university's administrative body. The deans of specialized schools are mostly appointed, and some are elected by professors. The principal work of the President of the faculty of arts and sciences or of the faculty of science is teaching and research. Generally speaking, the school's management structure is mainly composed of two parts: one part is the administrative system headed by the President; The other part is one or more group organizations mainly composed of professors. The school's administrative system is usually composed of the President, vice President, department director and other relevant managerial personnel. Among them, several vice-presidents are responsible for teaching, research, curriculum, social service and student affairs. Each college has one or several organizations that represent the interests of scholars and students, such as the faculty professorship, the student union, the policy committee, the curriculum committee, the evaluation committee, and the promotion committee. These institutions meet regularly or irregularly to hear the reports of their hospital committees or presidents. Some issues need to be decided by a collective vote, while others can be consulted by the President. Therefore, there is a dual structure of power at the academy level. The administrative system and the teachers' group have both division of labor and cooperation in this dual structure to maintain the normal operation of the college.

In summary, strong middle management is an important feature of the management of private universities in the United States. The college is a management entity and has the right to handle major issues such as appointing teachers, setting up courses, awarding degrees and carrying out academic activities.

Departments are the cornerstone of colleges and universities. It is a department headed by a department head.

The head of the department is responsible to one or more deans, to one or more department officials, and to colleagues of the department who are of equal or near equal status. The department has an important say in the appointment of new faculty, promotion of teachers, determination of teaching plans, application and implementation of research projects, but the major issues are not decided by the department

The method of selecting department head: administrative leadership appointment; Election of teachers; The compromise between the two approaches is that the department presents a list of names from which the administration designates one person. The third approach is a way to balance the interests of teachers and management institutions. In most cases, though, the head of a university is elected by the full faculty, rotating among professors who enjoy a "tenured" tenure. The head of the department is responsible to one or more deans, to one or more department officials, and to colleagues of the department who are of equal or near equal status. The department has an important say in the appointment of new faculty, promotion of teachers, determination of teaching plans, application and implementation of research projects, but the major issues are not decided by the department. In some cases, the dean must consult with other professors and make decisions according to the principle that the minority is subordinate to the majority. The authority and responsibility of a dean can vary greatly from school to school. The chairman's term is usually three years, sometimes five years, and is usually renewable.

Responsibilities of the department head: as the main administrative leader, organize and manage the daily teaching and research work of the department, including such matters as arranging the continuation of education work; Develop and continuously adjust the department's development policies to fit with those of colleges and schools: manage the department's expenditure; To guide and supervise the department's administrative staff; Arrange the class schedule and assign teaching tasks; Supervise and manage the use of classroom, laboratory, etc. Recruit a talented team of teachers with appropriate administrators; To encourage and praise excellent teaching staff; To advise the school leaders on the promotion of the faculty title, the adjustment of salary, the granting of "life tenure" and the enjoyment of academic fake; Provide the faculty leadership with a list of Suggestions for the department's professional directors; To organize and guide the academic discussion activities of the department's teachers. Make appropriate arrangements to guide undergraduate students; Make appropriate arrangements for guiding graduate students and getting their papers approved; encourage students to organize their own academic activities, set up study groups and student clubs. To cooperate with the school and school leaders in charge of scientific research to assist them in encouraging teachers' scientific research and writing; To cooperate with the relevant leaders of the college to assist them in evaluating the teaching of undergraduate and postgraduate students and to promote their development; Establish, maintain and develop relationships with internal and external research organizations and foundations. In addition, the department head has to attend relevant committees and do his own teaching and scientific research work.

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