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Irish problem

2018-11-06 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Irish problem,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了爱尔兰问题。19世纪初以来,爱尔兰的种族仇恨、宗教对立、政治不公平与社会不公平等问题让英国政府感到非常棘手,至今未能得到圆满的解决。爱尔兰内部新教徒与天主教徒矛盾重重,制度调适很难平衡两者的利益。另外爱尔兰人长期受到英国殖民统治,新教徒与天主教徒缺乏认同感,这是爱尔兰问题到现在都迟迟无法得到解决的根本原因。在新教徒看来,给予天主教徒同等权利等于减少自己的权利。而且由于新教徒在爱尔兰人口中仅占1/3,因此一旦爱尔兰自治,他们担心自己的权利无法得到保障,故而大多数新教徒希望爱尔兰保留在英帝国之中。

Irish problem,爱尔兰问题,essay代写,作业代写,代写

From before the end of the 19th century and the first world war, the British government to the land of Ireland, religious and political ruling policy made some beneficial reform, proposed the abolition of church act "land law" and "university education act, contributed to the third "autonomy", provides the implementation of autonomy in southern Ireland in the 1920s.

Since the beginning of the 19th century, the "Irish problem", which integrates ethnic hatred, religious antagonism, political injustice and social injustice, has become a thorny issue that successive British governments have had to face and has not been successfully solved. In this paper, the author will make a brief review of many institutional adjustments implemented by Britain in the aspects of religion, education, land and political future to solve the Irish issue before the World War I.

Before the World War I the institutional adjustment of the British government to solve the Irish problem was carried out in the context of the increasing tendency of separation in the Irish island and the policy choice faced by the British on the colonial issue during the transition from free competition to monopoly.

After the Irish ended their national independence in the 12th century, they were treated unjustly economically, religiously and politically.

Economically, Britain used Ireland as its breadbasket. In 1835, for example, the total grain production of Ireland was about 36 million pounds, of which 10 million pounds became the land rent of landlords, 20 million pounds became the tax revenue of the British government, and the high tax rate made Irish farmers destitute. He Famine of 1845 ~ 1848 starved 1.5 million Irish people. In 1847, 17 million pounds of grain was exported from Ireland under the protection of the British army.

The Irish are also subject to discrimination and powerlessness in religion and politics. Ireland was originally a Catholic country, after the British religious reform, forced the protestant church as Ireland. During the time of Elizabeth I and William iii, the British in the Ulster region of Northern Ireland attracted a large number of Protestant immigrants and established a situation of cooperative Ascendancy. In 1704, the British parliament passed the Test Act, which banned political rights for non-believers. In 1720, the Declaratory Act was promulgated to declare that the British parliament had the legislative and judicial powers of Ireland and that all Catholic church schools were closed. By the mid-18th century, Ireland's government was in effect an authoritarian government controlled by Britain that "served both the interests of protestant power in Ireland and England". Although Britain retained Ireland's bicameral parliament, parliamentary elections were effectively controlled by protestant landowners because the majority of Irish catholics were disenfranchised.

The growing tendency of Irish secession is also the result of the spread of Irish nationalism and the development of capitalism. In 1796, the united Irishmen sought help from France. Since then, the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars have awakened the Irish sense of nationalism, and the call for autonomy and even independence is growing. Both The young Ireland in 1842 and The Fenian Movement in The 1850s were reflections of the rise of nationalism.

The further development of Irish nationalism was driven by Irish capitalism which achieved certain development at the end of the 19th century. Dairy factories sprang up in munster and Ulster in the last quarter of the 19th century. The development of capitalism promoted the gradually growing power of the Irish bourgeoisie, but their development was suppressed by the British. The decline of Irish wool in the 18th century, for example, was the result of the blow.

The end of the 19th century, the bourgeoisie in the ideological trend of nationalism and Ireland, Ireland growing force secessionist Britain's political parties to rethink the problem of how to deal with the colony, but "colony in a national symbol and prestige with a kind of hard to say, but it is extremely important value". Moreover, after the anglo-british war, exhausted Britain was unable to expand its colonial territory, and could not easily give up its existing colonies and give Ireland complete autonomy, let alone independence. Therefore, Britain's adjustment within the scope of the system became the most appropriate method at that time.

Within Britain, many Tory MPS are "outside landlords" who own land in Ireland. They were the last pillar of British conservative power after the abolition of the corn laws, opposing the granting of colonial autonomy. With the transition from capitalism to monopoly, the liberal policy has been out of date, since 1886 the liberal party began to decline gradually. To maintain its strength, the liberal party "ventured to seek the support of Irish nationalists with the promise of introducing an Irish home rule bill". This is an important reason for the liberal party to be extremely positive in the process of promoting the adjustment of the "Irish problem" system, and also foreshadows its failure.

First, the leader of the liberal party, W.E.W. And offered to sell part of the church's land to tenants who rented it. The passage of the bill eased religious tensions in Ireland, and as a measure to sell part of the church's land, three out of four landowners at that time could become owners of the land by paying only a quarter of the purchase price. It provides a reference to the land reform act of 1870 and 1881.

In 1873, Gladstone proposed the "university education law" to coordinate with the adjustment of Irish religious issues. The bill seeks to give Irish catholics greater access to education through the integration of Catholic and protestant schools, and stipulates that the government will subsidize Catholic universities financially. But the bill failed because catholics felt that funding for Catholic universities was too low, but it was a solid step towards greater Irish access to education.

Land is at the heart of Ireland's problems. In 1872, the British parliament passed the "secret ballot law" proposed by the liberals, which gradually increased the number of Irish members in the imperial parliament, laying the foundation for solving the land problem. In 1870, the British government enacted the first land act, which had little effect in the implementation process due to its lack of operability, but the "Ulster convention" in the bill was determined in the form of law. The protection of agricultural investment and tenancy rights of tenants on their land. The state also provides certain loans to tenants who obtain the permission of the landlord and wish to purchase the leased land. In 1879, Michael Davitt led and founded the land alliance, which explicitly raised the requirement of small land ownership. In 1881, the British parliament passed a new land law, agreed to the "three-f" program proposed by the land association, substantially reduced and fixed the rent, and established a land tribunal to coordinate the relationship between landlords and tenants.

The two land bills of 1870 and 1881 failed to solve the land problem in Ireland because the farmers lacked money. The farmers first had to pay a third to a quarter of the purchase price. Since then, the key to land reform is how to help tenants get enough money to buy land.

In 1887, the conservative government enacted the ashburn land act, which provided loans to tenants to buy land. Under this act, the tenant farmer can receive the full payment for the land from the state at a rate of 4 per cent on the basis of a voluntary agreement with the landlord to purchase the land, and automatically becomes the owner of the land after 49 years. Although countries prepare total paid only 5 million pounds, but this small test was constituted in 1903, George Wen Dem introduced the basis of land purchase method.

Ireland in 1903 the governor George Wen Dem launched the land law provision: the government every year 5 million pounds of government bonds, gradually to raise a sum of 100 million pounds of money, the buyer shall pay the payment to the seller for 3.25% of the principal by the state, i.e., according to the two pounds fifteen shillings servicing, ten-shilling debt. The repayment period is 68.5 years. To encourage a sale, the state gives the seller a lump sum of 21 per cent of the land value. The law was so successful that 199,000 tenants in southern Ireland and 57,400 in the north became buyers. In this way, after supplementation, the land issue can be basically solved.

While dealing with Irish religious issues and land issues, the British government also carried out a second level of institutional adjustment to the political future of the "Irish issue". They proposed the Irish self-government bill three times, but the three bills failed due to the constraints of many factors.

In April 1886, the liberals, who had formed their third cabinet, introduced the first self-government bill in the lower house of parliament. The act gave the Irish only legislative power, a unicameral parliament with "two levels" and an executive with limited powers. The parliament dealt with Ireland under the strict jurisdiction of the imperial parliament, and laws on military, trade and taxation were strictly prohibited. Even so, the law was blocked by the conservatives and failed to pass.

In February 1892 the liberal party introduced a second self-government bill. This time it is a straight bicameral system, with 48 members of the upper house elected for a term of eight years by voters who own or possess land worth 20 pounds a year in taxes. The house of Commons consists of 103 members, elected separately from trinity college, on the basis of the existing electoral districts. Irish lawmakers remain in the imperial parliament. With Gladstone's full push, the house of Commons finally passed by 301 votes to 267 in the third reading. The upper house voted 419 to 410. But the majority of the lower house has voted for it, and the upper house will one day be unable to ignore the general public.

In April 1912, asquith proposed a third act of self-government, incorporating the conservative idea of "confederation". The bill proposes retaining 42 Irish MPS in the British parliament and ensuring the highest powers of the imperial parliament are not compromised. The Irish legislature has two Chambers: the senate has 40 members, elected by four Irish provinces, and the house of representatives has 164 members, 39 of whom are elected proportionally. The imperial parliament retained only certain designated powers, and the executive branch was responsible to the Irish parliament.

The bill passed the house of Commons by 367 votes to 257 in January 1913, but was rejected by the house of lords by 326 votes to 69 in the second reading. But under the 1911 act of parliament, the act would remain law a year later.

As the movement was about to make significant headway, the protestant majority in Ulster, Northern Ireland, organized the Ulster volunteer army. Southern Irish catholics, on the other hand, organized "Irish volunteers" to fight for autonomy. Just as a civil war was inevitable, World War I broke out. At a time when national unity was needed, the British government put the act on hold and promised to implement it after the war.

1919 Irish mp, elected in the previous year's general election, refused to serve in the British house of Commons. They formed the Irish house of representatives and issued a declaration of independence on their own in the name of an independent "republic of Ireland". Britain's institutional adjustment of the Irish problem was a total failure.

First of all, there are many conflicts between protestant and Catholic within Ireland, and institutional adjustment is difficult to balance the interests of both. The long British colonial rule of Ireland, protestants and catholics lack identity, which is the root cause of Ireland's problems. To protestants, giving catholics equal rights means reducing their own. And because protestants make up only a third of the Irish population, most want Ireland to remain in the British empire once they fear that their rights will not be secured once Ireland becomes self-governing.

Secondly, the British government system adjustment could not break through the national interest, the bottom line and Ireland's geographical location and abundant strategic resources has special meaning for the British, from the national interests, the British could not give the Irish truly independent and complete autonomy, so the Irish problem also can not be through simple system adapting to be fundamentally solved.

Third, as capitalism transitions from free competition to monopoly, the declining liberal party becomes increasingly powerless to push through Irish reform. In the late 19th century, the monopolistic bourgeoisie attempted to shift the crisis to the colonies, and the liberal party's policy of Irish self-government was clearly out of place. Moreover, Britain feared that if it allowed Irish self-rule to spread to other colonies, it would cause the collapse of the British empire.

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